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Monday, April 30, 2007

Rajasthan


Capital : Jaipur
Principal Languages : Hindi and Rajasthani

Geography :

With Punjab and Haryana to the northeast, Uttar Pradesh to the east, Madhya Pradesh to the southeast, and Gujarat to the southwest, Rajasthan shares a long border with its western neighbor of Pakistan. The harsh, unforgiving, arid Thar Desert takes up a large portion of Rajasthan and stretches into Pakistan. Much of what is not desert in Rajasthan is hilly. Across the state, one also witnesses the change from desert to wet, fertile land.

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place :

Ajmer (Dargah of Khwaja Moinn-ud-Din Chishti, Mayo college, Pushkar ), Alwar (Sariska Tiger Sanctuary), Banswara, Barmer, Bharatpur (historic fort, Keoladeo Ghana Bird sanctuary) Bhilwara, Bikaner (a desert city), Known for 16th century Lalgarh Palace built by Raja Rai Singh), Bundi, Chittorgarh (founded by great Rajput resistance hero, Bappa Rawal in 734 AD was centre of Rajput resistance against Mughal rule, Famous for Chittor Fort, Kirti Stambha [Tower of Fame ], Jai Stambha [Tower of Victory] Meena Temple, Rana Kumbba Palace), Churu, Dholpur, Dungarpur, Ganganagar, Jaipur (pink rose capital city of the State, known for Maharaja Palace, Hawa Mahal [Palace of Winds], Jantar Mantra Observatory, Museum and Ram Niwas Garden; the 17th century old Palace of Amber is located 11 km from here), Jaisalmer, Jalor, Jhalawar, Jhunjhunu, Jodhur ( a city of seven gates, Guland Sagar Lake, Hall of Heros), Kota, Mount Abu ( bill resort, Known for Dilwara Temples ( sacred to Jains), Nagaur, Nathdwara (12th century temple dedicated to Lord Krishna ), Pali, Sariska (wildlife sanctuary), Sawai Madhopur , Sikar, Sirohi, Tonk, Udaipur (founded by King of Mewar Maharana Udai Singh , it is known as "City of Sunrise " and Venice of the East ", Fateh Sagar Lake, Lake Picchola, Raj Mahal, Jag Mandir Palace, Jag Nivas Palace ).

Climate :

Though the southwest portion of Rajasthan receives a healthy amount of rainfall, the state is one of driest regions in India. Southwestern Rajasthan, with its tropical climate, receives about 26 inches (65 cm) of rainfall each year, but arid western Rajasthan only receives about 4 inches (10 cm) annually. Whether desert or fertile, all of Rajasthan shares one common trait: heat. Rajasthan's summer keeps temperatures anywhere between 77 F and 115 F (25 C-46 C). The winter only pushes temperatures down to the 46 F - 82 F (8 C - 28 C) range, certainly a relief but hardly a chill.

Location :

Located in north - west India, Rajasthasn is bounded north by Punjab, north -east by haryana and Uttar Pradesh, east by Madhya pradesh, south by Gujarat and west by Pakistan. Rajasthan is the largest State of the Indian union in terms of its size.

Culture :

Rajasthan contains a wide variety of peoples, each with their own traditions. The Rajputs have a proud warlike ancestry; the Bejaras live as traveling tradesmen and artisans; the Gadia Lohars customarily produce farming and household tools; the Bhilis are recognized as being highly skilled archers; the Rabaris traditionally live as cattle breeders. Like cattle breeding or archery, artistic customs have become trademarks of certain peoples of Rajasthan. The Bhopas are a group of singing priests, and the Bhat are well known as puppeteers. The Kalbelias and Kanjars pursue musical callings and have helped to create art that is now considered truly Rajasthani. Classical music forms like khayal and dhrupad are common, but the unique, semi-classical singing form known as maand is also a mainstay of Rajasthani music. The state's Hindu heritage has made religious festivals the major celebrations of the year, but areas of Rajasthan have their own special celebrations that help weave the rich tapestry of culture. Every January, the people of Bikaner celebrate the Camel Festival. Jaipur sees the celebration of the Elephant Festival. In February, one can go to Jaisalmer and witness the festivities of the Desert Festival. As unified statesmen, all the peoples of Rajasthan rejoice in March's Gangaur Festival.

History :

Rajasthan was preciously known as Rajputana the land of Raiputs whose history goes back to the pre - historic times. The Indus Valley Civilisation also flourished here and many ruins of Harappan age have been located in the State. The legendary heroes of medieval ages like Rana Sanga and Maharana Pratap always inspire us with feelings of patriotism but during the 19th century, all Rajput States accepted the suzerainty of the British. After Independence, as a result of the implementation of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the erstwhile state of Ajmer, Abu Taluka of Bombay State and the Sunel Tappa enclave of the former State of Madhya Bharat were transferred to the State of Rajasthan on November 1, 1956, whereas the Sironj sub - division of Rajasthan was transferred to the state of Madhya Pradesh. The State now comprises of 32 districts.

Economy :

Naturally, the state has many mineral based industries as well as textile production and chemical processing. As with all Indian states, Rajasthan also has intense activity in agriculture, particularly the growing of rice, barley, corn, wheat, cotton, and tobacco.

States and Union Territories of India

Sikkim


Capital : Gangtok
Principal Languages : Nepali (Official), Bhotia, Lepcha, English

Geography :

Deeply entrenched in the Himalayan Mountain Range, the mountainous state Sikkim has virtually no flat land. With Tibet on its north and northeast, Bhutan on its east, West Bengal on its south, and Nepal on its west, Sikkim boasts Mount Kanchanjunga, the third largest mountain in the world. Within the state, the mountains rise sharply northward, and the rivers flow to the south, creating magnificent sites along the countryside

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place :

Bankhim Natural Garden changu Lake, Dubdi monastery), Gangtok (capital nine mid-1800s, previous capitals were at Yuksam and Rabdantse; one can have excellent views of the entire Kanchenjunga range from any point in the vicinity), Gyalshing, Mangan, Namchi, Pemayantse (monastery), Phodang (monastery), Tashiding (monastery), Rumtek (monastery), Tashi View Point (picnic spot where a panoramic view of Kanchenjunga can be had), Yuksam (meeting place of the great Lamas).

Climate :

Thanks to its varying altitudes, the tiny state of Sikkim contains four major climate zones: tropical from sea level to 5,328 feet (1,624 meters) above sea level, temperate between 5,328 feet and 13,852 feet (1,624 - 4,222 meters), alpine from 13,852 feet to 17,218 feet (4,222 - 5,248 meters), and snowbound at higher elevations. Despite such staggering altitudes, temperatures can rise fairly high in the summer, especially in valleys, and the monsoon season (late June - early September) brings seemingly continuous rains. In total the state sees about 200 inches (5,000 mm) of rain annually.

Location :

Location in the Eastern Himalayas, Sikkim is bounded north by Tibet (China), east by Tibet and Bhutan, south by West Bengal and west by Nepal. It is the least populated State of the Indian Union.

Culture :

Four major ethnic groups compose Sikkim's population. There are the Nepalis (who make up roughly 75% of the population), the Lepchas (who make up about 20 % of the country), the Bhutias, and the Limbus. With significant minority populations, one would think that turmoil and unrest plague the state, but the peoples of Sikkim live in harmony and have come to create one culture. They are even unified by a main language, Nepali. Despite Hinduism being the dominant religion, Buddhism plays a major role in Sikkim custom. People generally have great faith in the Buddha, his teachings, and Buddhism's religious texts. Typically, prayer flags fly at village boundaries in order to fight off evil spirits. Many festivals focus on birth, enlightenment, and the Buddha's attainment of nirvana. Sikkim craft provides some of the most intriguing and practical pieces in the world. Choksees, a native craft, are short wooden tables with extravagant designs. Its most interesting facet is that it can easily be collapsed for transport between homes. The main attraction of the state, however, is the woolen carpet. Made with complicated patterns, the carpets use the brilliant colors of local vegetation and are made from pure sheep wool. They are by far, one of the most impressive products of Sikkim culture.

History :

Sikkim became a full-fledged state of the Indian Union with effect from April 26, 1975. Earlier in September 1974, it became an associate State. The Legislative Assembly adopted a resolution on April 10, 1975 abolishing the institution of Chogyal and seeking for the territory full statehood in the Indian Union. Sikkim is inhabited chiefly by the Lepchas, who are a tribe indigenous to Sikkim with their own dress and language, the Bhutias, who originally came from Tibet, and the Gorkhalis (Nepalis), who entered from Nepal in large numbers in the late 19th and early 20th century.

Economy :

The state government of Sikkim is pushing to boost industrial production in various industries, like carpet weaving, hydroelectric power, and food processing. This is an attempt to shed Sikkim's official label as an "industrially backward area." In spite of rich deposits of copper, lead, zinc, and other minerals, Sikkim is an agrarian society. Crop production centers on rice, corn, wheat, potato, cardamom, ginger, and oranges.

States and Union Territories of India

Tamil Nadu


Capital : Chennai
Principal Languages : Tamil
Largest City : Chennai
Establishment : 1967-07-18

Districts :

Chennai | Coimbatore | Cuddalore | Dharmapuri | Dindigul | Erode | Kanchipuram | Kanyakumari | Karur | Krishnagiri | Madurai | Nagapattinam | Namakkal | Perambalur | Pudukkottai | Ramanathapuram | Salem | Sivaganga | Thanjavur | The Nilgiris | Theni | Thoothukudi | Tiruchirapalli | Tirunelveli | Tiruvallur | Tiruvannamalai | Tiruvarur | Vellore | Viluppuram | Virudhunagar

Major Cities :

Alandur | Avadi | Ambattur | Chennai | Coimbatore | Cuddalore | Dindigul | Erode | Kancheepuram | Kumbakonam | Madurai | Nagercoil | Neyveli | Pallavaram | Pudukkottai | Rajapalayam | Salem | Tiruchirapalli | Tirunelveli | Nagercoil | Tambaram | Thoothukudi | Tiruppur | Tiruvannamalai | Thanjavur | Tiruvottiyur | Vellore

Geography :

India's eleventh largest state, Tamil Nadu, is located in extreme southern India. Bordered by Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh on the north, Tamil Nadu has a long eastern coastline along the Bay of Bengal that turns into a southern coastline on the Indian Ocean. With Kerala on its west, Tamil Nadu is made up of five geographic regions: the Kurinji (mountain region), the Mullai (forest region), the Palai (arid region), the Marudham (fertile plains), and the Neidhal (coastal region).

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place

Anamalai (wild Lift Sanctuary), Chennai (earlier name Madras, Fort Street George and St. Mary's Church, Gandhi Mandapam, Tapaleeswarar Temple, Marina Beach, Aquarium, Parthasarathy Temple, San Thome Cathedral, Fort Museum. Snake Park, Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, Guindy Wild Life Sanctuary, Vandalur Zoolgical Park), Chidambaram (abode of Nataraja (the "Dancing Shiva"), temples of Dravidian architecture), Chithannavasal (monument centre), Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Elagiri (hill station), Erode, Hogenakkal (hill station), Kalakad (Wild Life Sanctuary), Kancheepuram (the "Golden City" known for silk industry was successively capital of City" known for silk industry was successively capital of the Pallavas, the cholas and the kings of Vijayanagar, known for the seventh century temples), Kanyakumari (earlier known as Cape Comorin, sacred place of Hindus, impressive memorial of Swami. Vivekananda), Kazhugumalai (monument centre), Madurai (Meenakshi Temple, Tirumalai Nayak Temple, rock-cut temple at Tiruparankundram), Mahabalipuram (also known as Mamalapuram, Famous beach and solid rock monuments), Moovarkoil (monument centre), Nagoor (monument center), Mundanthuri (Wild Life Sanctuary), Mudumalai (wild Life Sanctuary), Nagapattinam, Nagercoil, Narthamalai (monument centre), Ootacamund [Udhagamandalam] (hill resort), Papanasam (hill station), Point Calimere (Bird Sanctuary), Pudukkotai), Singanallur sivagangai, Srirangam (monument centre), Suruli (water falls), Thanjavur (capital of Chola emperors during 10th to 14th centuries AD, Brihadeeswara Temple), (monument centre), Tiruvannamalai (monument centre), Vellore, Virudhunagar, Yercaud (hill station).

Climate :

April and May are the hottest months of this tropical state's year. In these months, the weather can soar all the way up to about 104ºF (40ºC). Even the coast sees warm summer temperatures, but receives a cooling sea breeze each night. Obviously, the winter does not bring Tamil Nadu a freeze. Temperatures rarely drop below about 70ºF (21.1ºC) anywhere besides high in the hills. Winter also brings monsoon rains from October to December.

Location :

Location is South India; Tamil Nadu is bounded north by Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, East by the Bay of Bengal, south by the Indian Ocean and west by Kerala.

Culture :

Within the state, an established caste system exists and is more strictly followed than in most other parts of India. Many people wear a white mark on their forehead as an indication of the caste to which they belong. Additionally, Gypsies have held a long lasting position in Tamil culture, and the Badaga, Kota, and Toda tribes inhabit the Niligri Hills. Besides, castes and Gypsies, Tamil culture conjures up thoughts of music and dance. The state is the birthplace of Carnatic music and Bharatnatyam. One of the most highly treasured Indian classical dance forms, Bharatnatyam was originally the dance of young women in the temples of Mahabalipuram. These temples themselves are also amazing art forms. Each one contains extensive stone carvings that are a cornerstone of Tamil art. The countryside is dotted with various sites known for their own particular craft, such as the paintings of Tanjore, the mats of Pattamadai, and woodcarvings of Chettiand. Tamil art has also found its way into Tamil celebrations. Dolls are often made in preparation of the Navratri celebrations, but the main festival of Tamil is Pongal. Celebrated in January, Pongal marks the harvest and brings feasts, music, and dance to the state. January is also the time of the Thaipusam festivial, in which individuals ritually bathe. Many more festivals fill up the Tamil calendar.

History :

The history of Tamil Nadu goes back to the age of the sangams when a great civilisation flourished reaching new heights in the fields, of art, literature and occultism. During the medieval ages, it proudly preserved the heritage of the nation unperturbed by the ravages of the Muslim inroads in Northern India. The first trading establishment made by the British in the Madras State was at Peddapali (now Nizampatnam) in 1611 and then at Mazulipatnam. In 1639, the English were permitted to make a settlement at the place which is now Madras and Fort St. George was founded. By 1801, the whole of the territory from the Northen Circars to Cape Comorin (with the exception of certain French and Danish settlements) had been brought under British rule. Under the provisions of the States Reorgainisation Act, 1965, the Malabar district (excluding the islands of Laccadive and Minicoy) and the Kasaragod taluk of south Kanara district were transferred to the new State of Kerala; the South Kanara district (excluding Kasaragod taluk of the Coimbatore district were transferred to the new State of Mysore; and the Kollegal taluk of the Coimbatore district were transferred to the new State of Mysore; and the Laccadive Amindivi and Minicoy Island were constituted as a separate Union Territory. Four taluks of the Thiruvananthapuram district and the shencottah taluk of Quilon district were transferred from Travancore- Cochin to the new Madras State. On April 1,1960, an area of 1,049 sq km (405 sq miles) from Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh was transferred to Madras in exchanger for 845 sq km (326 sq miles) from the Chingleput and Salem districts. In January 1969, the State was renamed Tamil Nadu.

Economy :

70% of Tamil Nadu's population leads an agrarian life, producing vital food crops like rice, corn, and legumes. Tamil farmers also produce major cash crops, including cotton, sugarcane, coffee, tea, rubber, and chilies. Given these crops and major limestone, magnetite, mica, and quartz deposits, industry in Tamil Nadu has centered around very specific goods: textiles, fertilizers, paper, steel, and automobile parts. Tamil Nadu is also a major producer of leather and leather goods.

States and Union Territories of India

Tripura


Capital : Agartala
Principal Languages : Bengali, Tripuri, Hindi, English

Geography :

Almost completely hidden away from the rest of the world, the tiny state of Tripura is one of the least publicized states in India. With Assam to its north and Mizoram to its east, the state is surrounded by Bangladesh on all other sides and has remained secluded from much of the world. Northern Tripura consists of alternating hills and valleys, while southern Tripura is a large open spread of forestland.

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place :

Agartala (capital city) has Ujjayana Place, Jagannath Temple, Laxmi Narayan Temple, Uma Maheswari Temple, Benuban Vihar, State Museum, Bhunaveswari Temple, Brahmakanda, Dumbor Lake, Jumpui Hill, Kailashshahr, Kamalasagar, Matabiri, Nirmahal (lake palace), Rabindra Kanan, Sepahijala, Tripurasundari Temple, Trishna Wild Sanctuary, Udai pur, Unakoti.

Climate :

Tripura's climate is simply categorized by hot summers and cool winters. Over the course of a year, the state will see temperatures anywhere between 50 F and 90 F (10 C - 35 C). Tripura's weather is dominated by rain. On average the state receives about 82 inches (210 cm) of rain each year, with Kamalpur receiving about 112 inches (285.5 cm) a year. Even the driest region of the state, Sonamura, receives roughly 71 inches (181 cm) of rainfall annually.

Location :

Tripura is bounded on the north, west and south by Bangladesh and on the northeast by Assam and Mizoram.

Culture :

Tribal life is a mainstay for much of Tripura. In total, there are 19 tribal communities living in the state, as well as large Bengali and Manipuri populations. Originally, the tribes of Tripura lived off the land, particularly the jungles, but over time more ethnic groups flowed into the state. With this inflow of new peoples, an organized lifestyle emerged in the state. Marriage between different ethnicities and castes has helped to build diversity and unity in the state. In keeping with tribal traditions, characteristic art of the state is very raw and natural. Both men and women typically wear hand-woven clothes. Bamboo and cane furniture from Tripura are quite popular, and products made from the palm leaf are very common as well. Similarly, music and dance of the state has a tribal quality to it. Most dances relate to the agricultural life of the tribe. The Garia Dance signifies the cultivation of certain plants, and the Lebang Boomani Dance marks the monsoon season. The existence of so many different tribal groups also means that many different holidays and festivals are celebrated depending on the region of the state. For example, only the Mog tribe celebrates the Way Festival. However, Hinduism does bind most people together, and major Hindu observances, like Diwali, are found throughout the state. Other special celebrations, such as the Boat Race Festival, the Orange Festival, and the Tourism Festival, flourish statewide as well.

History :

The history of Tripura goes back to the epic age of the Mahabharata and the Puranas. A Hindu State of great antiquity, having been ruled by the Maharajas for over two on October 15, 1949. With the reorganisation of States on September 1,1956, Tripura became a Union Territory. It became a full-fledged State on January 21,1972

Economy :

Industrial strength in Tripura is greatly underdeveloped. Though natural gas, fruit processing, rubber goods production, handicraft goods, and textiles are growing industries, they are not major contributors to the economy. Tourism is actually the main industry of the state, and industry in total only employs about 5% of the state. Agricultural strength, particularly in horticulture, is the backbone of the state economy. Pineapples, oranges, cashews, coconuts, tea, cotton, and rubber are the major cash crops grown. Moreover, livestock raising and fishing provide a sizeable income for Tripura.

States and Union Territories of India

Uttar Pradesh


Capital : Lucknow
Principal Languages : Hindi (Official), Urdu (Official), English (Official)
Geography :

The fourth largest state in physical size, Uttar Pradesh sits in northern India; it is bounded by Uttaranchal and Nepal on the north, Bihar on the east, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh on the south, and Haryana, Delhi, and Rajasthan on the west. Uttar Pradesh is typically divided into four geographic regions: the Uttar Pradesh Himalayas, the Shivalik Hills, the Gangetic Plain, and the north peninsula.

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place :

Agra (world famous Taj Mahal, Sikandara, Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri), Aligarh (formerly known as Koil, this ancient city has traces of Buddhist and Hindu temples; now famous for aligarh Muslim University), Allahabad (earlier known as Prayag (meaning a place of sacrifice), it is near the confluence of rivers Ganga and Yamuna, it is an ancient Hindu Pilgrimage city), Ayodhya (birthplace of Lord Rama and important pilgrimage centre), Azamgarh, Bahraich, Ballia, Bareilly (former capital of the region known as Rohilkhand), Bithur, Budaun, Bulandshahr, Deoria, Devgarh, Eta, Etawah (important town during Mughal period), Faizabad, Farrukhabad, Fatehgarh, Fatehpur Sikri (deserted sandstone e city located near Agra, Dargah of Sheikh Salim Chisti), Firozabad, Ghaziabad, Ghazipur,Gonda, Gorakhpur (Gorakhnath temple; Geeta Press publishing Hindu religious literature), Hamirpur, Hardoi, Jaunpur, (historical Place; famous for Jhansi fort; transit point for Khajuraho), Kannauj (once a mighty Hindu city, it was raided by Mahmud of Ghazni; here Humayun city, it was raided by Mahmud of Ghazni; here Humayun was defeated by Sher Shah in1540),kanpur (sometimes called the 'Manchester of India' is an important industrial town; city was earlier known as'Cawnpore'), Kheri, Lalitpur, Lucknow (named after Lakshman, Younger brother of Lord Rama, the hero of the famous epic "Ramayana", the city stands on river Gomati; known for Bara Imambara, Mainpuri, Mathura (situated on the banks of river Yamuna, place of Hindu pilgrimage and birth place of Lord Krishna), Moradabad, Muzaffarnagar, Orai, Pilibhit, Pratapgparh, Prayag (known for the confluence of river Ganga and Yamuna), Rae Bareli, Rampur, Robertsganj, Saharanpur, Sarnath [major Buddhist centre (here Buddha gave his first sermon); known for Deer Park, Dhamekh Stupa, Dharmarajika Stupa and Ashoka Pillar], Shahjahanpur,Siddharth Nagar, Sitapur, Sultanpur, Unao, Varanasi (Hindu Pilgrimage town located on the banks of Ganga, Benaras Hindu University, Bharat Mata Temple, Durga Temple, Gyanvapi Mosque, Alamgir Mosque, Sarnath, Tulsi Manas Temple, Vishwanath Temple, New Vishwanath Temple), Vindhyachal (Place of pilgrimage).

Climate :

Almost all of Uttar Pradesh experiences a tropical monsoon climate. Only the far northern parts of the state and other parts high on mountains see otherwise. On the plains, temperatures sit between the low 50s and low 60s (12.5 C - 17.5 C) in January. By May, the mercury has jumped up into the 80s (27.5 C - 32.5 C). Rain in the state sees significant variations depending on location. Western Uttar Pradesh sees about 30 inches (80 cm) of rain each year, but the eastern part of the state sees up to 78 inches (200 cm) of rainfall annually.

Location :

Uttar Pradesh is bounded by Uttarachal and Nepal in north, Madhya pradesh and Chattisgarh in south, Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi in west and Bihar and Jharkhand in east.

Culture :

Nearly every cottage industry trade has been moved into some sort of large-scale production in Uttar Pradesh, but their domestic roots have not been destroyed. Traditional handicrafts are still a major part of the Uttar Pradesh lifestyle. Garments, stonework, dolls, leather goods, musical instruments, papier-m??and goods made from horns, bone, cane, and bamboo are all very popular. The centers of production for these crafts are all well known for specializing and perfecting their respective trade. Bhadohi and Mirzapur are well known carpet-producing centers. Varanasi silk is a highly prized good. Embroidery work in the chickan fashion is at its peak in Lucknow. The list goes on and on and includes work in ebony goods, glassware, woodwork, pottery, and ceramics. Ancient Sanskrit texts speak of the rich music and dance in the region. Much of India's musical tradition emerged from the state; the classical dance style Kathak originated in 18th century Uttar Pradesh temples. Kathak is now the most popular classical dance in north India. Festivals and fairs fill up the state's calendar. Some of these celebrations have a large, statewide following while others are local to single villages. One of the most important festivals in the state, Navratri lasts nine days and celebrates the consort of the Hindu god Shiva. Other large observances are Diwali and Holi. The Holi festivities at Barsana include a tradition in which women challenge men to throw paint on them.

History :

Uttar Pradesh is the heart of India whose history goes back to the Vedic Age. Two great epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata and great religions-Buddhism and jainism were born and flourished here. In the medieval ages, great muslim empires were established in this region. It played a prominent role in India's first war of Independence in 1857. The Britishers gave it the name of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. In 1935 the name was shortened to "United Provinces". After Independence, the States of Rampur, Banaras and Tehri-Garhwal were merged with United Provinces. The name merged with United Provinces. The name of the United Provinces was changed to Uttar Pradesh in 1950.

Economy :

Agriculture is the supporting leg of Uttar Pradesh's economy. Thanks to new crop seeds, more available fertilizer, and better irrigation, Uttar Pradesh has become India's largest producer of food grains, specializing in rice, wheat, barely, and millet. Industry also plays a vital role in the economy, as it employs about one third of the state population in the textile and sugar refining sectors alone. Major machinery and electronic production projects are also under way

States and Union Territories of India

Sunday, April 29, 2007

Punjab


Capital : Chandigarh
Principal Languages : Punjabi (Official)

Geography :

The fertile Punjab has proven itself successful in a political hot zone. Having Jammu and Kashmir to its north, Himachal Pradesh to its northeast, Haryana to its south, Rajasthan to its southwest, and Pakistan to its west, the state is blessed with fertile soil. The Indus, Ravi, and Ghaggar Rivers and their tributaries flow towards the southeast across the state, replenishing the soil and creating a useful canal system. The rolling hills of northeastern Punjab sit at the foot of the Himalayan Mountains.

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place

Amritsar (Golden Temple, Durgiana Temple, Jallianwala Bagh), Anandpur Rao), Bhakra Dam, Faridkot, Kapurthala, Ludhiana, Nangal Dam, Pathankot, Patiala, Ropar (famous for ruins of Harappan city), Sangrur, Taran (Gurudwara in commemoration of Guru Ramdas) Climate :

Three major seasons make up Punjab's calendar: winter, summer, and the monsoon season. Winters last from October to March, and temperatures drop to fairly frosty levels (around 40ºF or 4.4ºC). During the summer, which lasts from April to June, the temperatures rise to very hot levels and have been known to go as high as 110ºF (43.3ºC). The monsoon season sees a slight drop off in temperature into simply warm levels and an onslaught of rains. Regions closer to mountains receive about 37.8 inches (96 cm) of rain from July to September; the plains receive about 22.8 inches (58 cm).

Location :

Punjab is bound by Jammu and Kashmir in the north, Rajasthan and Haryana in the south, Himachal Pradesh in the east and Pakistan in the west.

Culture :

One of Punjab's most treasured traditions is the art known as phullkari (flowering). The craft involves creating flowery designs and surfaces using the very basic tools of a needle and silk thread. Needless to say, it also requires a great deal of skill. Craftsmen are well known for creating artistic bedspreads and floor coverings. Punjabi craftsmanship has also been put into the creation of pidhis (special stools), colorful leather jootis (shoes or slippers), and dolls. Punjab's dominant Sikh population has even had an effect on the celebrations of Hindus, and Muslims in the state. The festival of Baisakhi signifies the start of the harvesting season, but it also commemorates the organization of the Sikh order of the Khalsa by the tenth Guru, Guru Gobind. In fact, throughout the year Sikhs celebrate Gurpurabs, which honor the Gurus of the religion. The two largest ones pay respect to Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism (celebrated between October and November), and Guru Govind Singh (celebrated between December-January). Dining habits in Punjab vary with the season of the year. Winter cuisine's signature dish is sarson-ka-saag (mustard leaves) with white butter. This dish typically comes with roti and yogurt. Punjab is also known for rajma (a kidney bean dish). Punjabi cuisine's distinguishing trait is its abundant, some might say excessive, use of malai (cream), paneer (cottage cheese), and curds.

History :

Punjab is the sword-arm of India. The Vedic civilisation got its birth and the great vedas were composed ion the banks of its five rivers. During the medieval ages, it decided the fate of various ruling dynasties of the country. After the downfall of the Mughals and the Marathas, Ranjit Singh established in Punjab a strong state based on patriotism and secularism. The English captured Punjab in 1849. It was constituted as an autonomous province of India in 1937. On attainment of Independence, the province was partitioned between India and Pakistan into East Punjab and West Punjab respectively, under the Indian Independence Act, 1947, the boundaries being determined under the Radcliffe Award. The name of East Punjab was changed Punjab under the Constitution of India. On November 1,1956 the erstwhile State of Patiala and East Punjab to form the State of Punjab. On November 1, 1966, under the Punjab reorgaisation Act, 1966, the State was reconstituted as a Punjabi-speaking State Comprising the Districts of Gurdaspur (excluding Dalhousie), Amritsar, kapurthala, Jalandhar, Ferozepur, Bathinda, Patiala and Ludhiana, parts of Sangrur, Hosphiarpur and Ambala districts, and parts of Kharar tehsil. The remaining area comprising as area of 46,620 sq km (18,000sq miles) and an estimated (1967) population of 8.5 million was shared Himachal Pradesh. The existing capital of Chandigarh was made the joint capital of Punjab and Haryana.

Economy :

Punjab is a largely agrarian economy, specializing in wheat and rice. Additionally, the state grows corn, legumes, cotton, and sugarcane. Buffalo, other cattle, sheep, goats, and poultry are the main types livestock raised. Industry exists largely in metals, textiles, yarn, sporting goods, hand tools, and bicycles, but electronics and pharmaceuticals are rapidly growing sectors.

States and Union Territories of India

Orissa


Capital : Bhubaneswar
Principal Languages : Oriya

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place :

Balasore, Baripada, Beharmpur, Bhawani-patna, Bhubaneswar (temple city known for Lingaraja Temple), Bolangir, Chattarpur, Chilka Lake (Kalijai Temple is located inside the lake), Cuttack Lake Dhenkanal, Keonjhar, Konark (Black Pagoda-Sun Temple built by Narasingha Dev of Ganga Dynasty), Koraput, Nandankanam (Zoological park), Phulbani, Puri (lord Jagannath Temple and beautiful seabeach; also known for the Car Festival), Rourkela, Sambalpur, Sundargarh.

Places of tourist importance :

Dhauli Buddhist temple, Udayagiri-Khandagiri ancient caves, Ratnagiri-Lalitgiri and Udayagiri, Buddhist images and ancient caves, Saptasajya scenic view of hill beds. Similipal National Park and Tiger Project, Hirakud Dam, Duduma Waterfall, Ushakothi Wildlife Sanctuary, Gopalpur Sea Beach, Harishankar, Nrusinghanath, Taratarini, Taptapani, Bhitarkanika and Bhimakunda Kapilash are famous places. Hirakud Dam across the turbulent Mahanadi river is the biggest single dam constructed in the country.

Location :

Location in eastern India, Orissa is bounded north by Jharkhand, Northeast West Bengal, east by the Bay of Bengal, south by Andhra Pradesh and west by Chhattisgarh.

History :

Orissa, the land of Oriyas, was known as Kalinga in ancient ages. Ashoka conquered it in 261 BC with the horrible bloodshed which converted him into a pacifist and a Buddhist monk. On his death, Kalinga recovered its freedom and rose to great heights under Kharavla. It came to be ruled by the Hindu dynasty until its conquest by the Mughals in 1592. Alivardi Khan, Nawab of Bengal ceded it to the Marathas in 1751 from whom the East India Company snatched it in 1803. In 1803, a board of two commissioners was appointed to administer the province, but in 1805 it was designated the district of Cuttack and was placed in charge of a collector, judge and magistrate In 1829, it was split up into three regulation districts of Cuttack, Balasore and Puri, and the non-regulation tributary states which were administered by their own chiefs under the aegis of the British Government. Augul, one of these tributary states, was annexed in 1847 and with the Khonbdmals, ceded in 1835 by the tributary chief of the Boudh state, constituted a separate no0n-regulation tributary states which were administered by their own annexed in 11847 and with the Khondmals, ceded in 1835 by the tributary chief of the Boudh state, constituted a separate non-regulation districts formed an outlying tract of the Bengal Presidency till 1912 when they were transferred to Bihar, constituting one of its divisions under a commissioner. Orissa division. The rules of 25 Orison states surrendered all jurisdiction and authority to the government Jurisdiction and authority to the Government of India on January 1, 1948, on which date the provincial Government took over the administration. The administration of two states, viz., Saraikella and Kharswan, was transferred to the Government with the Dominion Government, Mayurbhanj state was finally merged with the province in January 1,1949. By the States Merger (Governor's provinces) Order, 1949, the states were completely merged with the State of Orissa on August 19,1949.

Economy :

The main occupation of sixty four percent of the people of Orissa is agriculture. The important crops are rice, pulses, oilseeds, jute, mesta, sugarcane, coconut and turmeric. Forests cover about 43 percent of the area of the state. Iron ore, manganese ore, limestone, dolomite chromite, non-coking coal, bauxite, graphite, china clay, nickel ore, fire clay and mineral sands are among the important minerals of Orissa. The major mineral-based industries of the State are the Rourkela steel plant, a pig iron plant at Barbil and a ferrochrome plant at Jaipur Road, two ferro-manganese plants, a ferro-silicon plant and an aluminum smelter plant.

States and Union Territories of India

Nagaland


Capital : Kohima
Principal Languages : Nagamese (Official), English (Official), Ao, Sema, Konyak

Geography :

One of India's smallest states, Nagaland sits on the far eastern edge of northeast India. Bordered by Arunachal Pradesh on the north, Myanmar on the east, Manipur on the south, and Assam on the west, Nagaland is a hilly state of high mountains, deep gorges, lush valleys, and winding streams. The dominant geographic feature of the landscape is the Naga Hills, which run all the way through the state and contribute to the mountainous terrain

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place :

Kohima, Mokokchung, Mon, Phek, Tuensang, Wokha, Zunhoboto.

Climate :

Nagaland's mountainous terrain also has a profound effect on the state's climate. During the winter months (October - February), temperatures range from about 39ºF to 75ºF (4ºC - 24ºC); summer months (March - June) bring temperatures up into the 60ºF - 90ºF (16ºC - 31ºC) range. Filling the gap between those months, the monsoon season sees heavy rains and temperatures slightly cooler than the summer. That majority of the states annual 98 inches (250 cm) of rain falls during this time.

Location :

Situated in the extreme northeast of the country, Nagaland is bound by Arunachal Pradesh in the north, Manipur in the south, Myanmar in the east and Assam in the west.

Culture :

Nagaland is made up of over 20 tribes, the largest being the Konyaks, then the Aos, Tangkhuls, Semas, and Angamis. Over time, the tribes remained relatively isolated from each other, and even today do not view themselves as one unified people. Despite this, the many tribes do share common cultural characteristics that help to create the loose, generic "Nagaland culture". Naga craftsmanship has been perfected in the creation of utility pieces and tools. People all around India know Nagaland as the producer of fine shawls, complicated bamboo and cane furniture, powerful machetes, beads, and woodcarvings. Tribal outfits take this craftsmanship to higher levels with the use of colorful cloths, bearskin-covered bamboo shields, and decorated spears. Making use of mainly the drum and the flute, Naga music plays a major role in daily life and helps pass on legends and traditions to younger generations. Occasionally accompanied with slow, rhythmic dancing, the music helps in the celebrations of Nagaland's colorful festivals. The Angami tribe's 10-day Sekrenyi marks the end of the agricultural cycle. April sees the celebration of Konyak Aoling, which celebrates the New Year. In celebrating such events, the Nagas dine on their typical spicy, non-vegetarian food. Raw chilly is a standard ingredient of Naga cuisine, and pork with bamboo shoot is common dish

History :

Nagaland was constituted by the Union Government in September 1962. It comprises the former Naga Hills district of Assam and the former Tuensang Frontier division of the North-East Frontier Agency; these had been made a centrally administered area in 1957, administered by the President through the governor of Assam. In January 1961, the area was renamed and given the status of a State of the Indian Union, which was officially inaugurated on December1, 1963.

Economy :

The vast majority of Nagaland's people are involved in agricultural work. Much like other natives of this part of the world, Nagas frequently engage in slash and burn farming, which has combined with increasing food demands to cause sever soil erosion. Thankfully, the state's forests, the most important source of income, have not been badly harmed. Since the 1970s, the state has been working on an intensive industrialization program to move away from the cottage industries of weaving, woodwork, and pottery, but the lack of raw materials, finances, power, and infrastructure has made the process difficult

States and Union Territories of India

Mizoram


Capital : Aizawl
Principal Languages : Mizo (Official), English (Official), Bengali, Lakherh

Geography :

Located on the far branch of northeast India, Mizoram touches Assam and Manipur on its north, Myanmar on its south and east, and Bangladesh and Tripura on its west. Stretching from north to south, the Mizo Hills cover most all of the tiny Indian state. In fact, most of the state is nearly 6,500 feet (2,000 meters) above sea level, with the highest peak being the magnificent 7,103 foot (2,165 meter) tall Blue Mountain. Furthermore, many major rivers (including the Sonai, Tlwanag, Kolodine, and Kamaphuli) carve the state.

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place :

Aizawl hilly city (religious and cultural centre of Mizo), Champhai (beautiful resort on the Myanmar border), Chhimtuipui, Lunglei, Saiha, Situal Forest around), Wantawng Fall (near hill station of Thenzawl).

Climate :

With the Tropic of Cancer running right across it, Mizoram enjoys a pleasant temperate climate. This is the result of the combining forces of its elevation and its geographic location on Earth. Helping keep temperatures at a comfortable level and maintain the mystic natural wonder of the state's gorges and mountains, Mizoram receives about 118 inches (300 cm) of rainfall each year. As with most Indian states, this rainfall is heaviest during the monsoon season.

Location :

One of the eastern-most States, Mizoram lies between Bangladesh and Myanmar (Burma). Tripura, Assam and Manipur border is on the north.

Culture :

Experts believe that the original inhabitants of Mizoram originated from northwestern China, the culture that emerged is distinct to the state and its people. Tribal life dominates the existence of the Mizos, with the main tribes being the Lushais, Pawis, Paithes, Raltes, Pang, Himars, and Kukis. Each village has two centers of focus: the chief's house and the zawlbuk (the community house for the young, unmarried men of the village). The great majority of Mizos are Christians (mostly Protestant), but there are also Buddhist, Hindu, and Muslim minorities. The Chakmas, a nomadic tribe of the state, practice a mix of Hinduism, Buddhism, and animism. Despite these variances and outside influences, there is a unifying Mizoram culture. For example, all Mizo tribes follow the traditional ethics code of tlawmngaihna, which states that every Mizo has the duty to be hospitable, kind, unselfish, and helpful to the disadvantaged. Mizos also celebrate many common holidays, though religious celebrations are the most festive. Chapchar Kut occurs after the clearing of jungles for cultivation of crops, Pawl Kut (December) marks the end of abundant grain harvests, and Mim Kut (after September's corn harvest) honors the dead. Celebrations typically include zealous merriment and dancing, like the bamboo dance called the Cheraw. Celebrations also include the traditional foods of the state. Mizo cuisine is unlike the rest of India in that it includes abundant meat consumption and contains few spices. Above all, the locally made wine plays a role in holiday festivities

History :

The Lushai Hills, sandwiched between Burma in the cast and south and Bangladesh in the west, was christened Mizoram when it became a Union Territory in 1972. By a Constitutional Amendment in 1986, the Union Government decided to confer full Statehood on Mizoram, which became the 23rd State of the Indian Union with effect from February 20, 11987.

Economy :

Roughly 75% of Mizoram's population is involved in agriculture. Traditional farming techniques involved an eight-year slash and burn cycle, but as populations grow and land becomes more scarce, use of this method and crop yields have diminished. The state's biggest crops are a special fibreless ginger, as well as rice, corn, mustard, sugarcane, sesame, and potatoes. With poorly developed infrastructure, the state has no major industries, only small-scale ones, including sericulture, handicrafts, furniture making, oil refining, grain milling, and ginger processing.

States and Union Territories of India

Meghalaya


Capital : Shilong
Principal Languages : Khasi,Garo,Jaintia

Geography :

The state of Meghalaya is in a rather peculiar position of far northeast India; it is only bordered by two regions: Assam (on the north and east) and Bangladesh (on the south and west). What is more, Meghalaya sits on somewhat of a throne 6,500 feet (2,000 meters) above sea level. A rolling plateau, with a dangerously steep south face, makes up the greatest portion of the state's geography. Within its tiny area on a severe earthquake prone zone, Meghalaya also contains a large bounty of lakes and waterfalls.

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place :

Kyllang Rock (near Shillong), Nartiang (near Shillong), Nohsangithinang Falls (at Mawasmai near Cherrapunjee), Shillong (beautiful spots such as Ward's Lake, Lady Hydari Park, Polo Ground, Mini Zoo, Elephant Falls and Shillong Peak and golf course), Uniam Lake (by the side of Shillong Guwahati road).

Climate :

In spite of its tropical location, Meghalaya enjoys a relatively cool climate, thanks to its elevation. However, this general statement overlooks the altitude changes across the state that affect climate. The Khasi and Jaintia hills enjoy a moderate climate all year long, however the Garo Hills experience much warmer and more humid conditions. The state on the whole does share heavy rainfall levels. The region of Cherrapunji, for example, receives an average of 450 inches (1143 cm) every year; it's the second wettest region in the world.

Location :

A landlocked territory of lovely hills with abounding sylvan beauty, Meghalaya (meaning "the abode of clouds") is bounded on the north by Goalpara, Kamrup and Karbianglog by the districts of Assam State, and on the east by the districts of Cachar and North Cachar Hills, also of the State of Assam. On the south and west is Bangladesh.

Culture :

The majority people of Meghalaya lead a tribal lifestyle. The Khasis, Jaintias, Garos, Khasis, Jaintias (all of Mongolian ancestry) and the Garos (of Tibeto-Burman ancestry) make up the largest portions of tribal peoples. Though these tribes each have different cultures, they all share a common peculiarity. Unlike the globally typical primogeniture system, these tribes have a traditional matriarchal law of inheritance, in which family property passes from mother to youngest daughter. Christianity's movement into the area put an end to many tribal traditions, practices, and festivals. Expectedly, Christian holidays make up most major celebrations in the area. However, most tribes have maintained some spiritual and ancestral observances commonly celebrated at harvest. The Khasi celebrate Ka Pomblang Nongkrem and Shad Sukmynsiem, the Jaintias celebrate Behdiengkhlam, and the Garo celebrate Wangala. These and all other social functions involve drinking, dancing, and music from buffalo horn singas, bamboo flutes, and drums. Meghalaya's most well known craft is the weaving of cane into objects of domestic utility, like mats, stools, and baskets. A very special cane mat, called the tlieng, lasts 20-30 years. Many tribes are also involved in the weaving of cloth, and the Khasis even manufacture metal tools, utensils, and weapons.

History :

The State was creates under the Assam Reorgaisation (Meghalaya) Act, 1969 and inaugurated on April 2, 1970 its status was that of a State within the State of Assam until January 21, 1972 when it became a full-fledged State of the Union. It consists of the former Garo Hills district and United Khasi and Jaintia Hills district of Assam. Cherrapunjee, 53km from Shillong, is noted for its heavy rainfall. The annual average is 10,871 millimetres which varies greatly, 22,987 millimetres were recorded in 1861 with a maximum precipitation in July of 9,296.40 millimetres. The heaviest rainfall in the world is recorded in the nearby village of Mawsynram with an amphitheatre relief and on the windward side of the monsoon.

Economy :

Despite being very well connected with roads, Meghalaya has few railroads, thus industrialization has been slow. Baking, furniture making, iron and steel fabrication, tailoring, knitting, and domestic industries dominate the market. The state is working to push additional industries like electronics, but farming remains the main way of life. The state produces rice and corn, as well as tropical and temperate fruits like oranges, pineapples, bananas, jackfruits, plums, pears, and peaches.

States and Union Territories of India

Manipur


Capital : Imphal
Principal Languages : Manipuri

Geography :

A relatively small state, Manipur sits as almost a literal pit of paradise. The center of the state is a low-lying basin, but high mountains reaching over 6,500 feet (2,000 meters) surround it. This fort-like positioning also means that the state is completely land locked. It is enclosed by Nagaland on the north, Myanmar on the east, Mizoram on the south, and Assam on the west.

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place :

Bishnupur, Chandel, Churachandpur (beautiful place inhabited by Kuki tribe), Imphal (Shri Govindajee Temple, War cemetries, Loktak Lake), Kaina, Keibul, khongiom, Lamjao (wildlife sanctuary), Khongamat (orchid yard), Mao (hill station), Moirang (known for the old love story of Khumba and Thoibi), Moreh (border town on IndoMyanmar road), Phubala, Senapati, Sendra, Tamenglong, Thoubal, Ukhrul, Waithou Lake

Climate :

With such drastic changes in elevation, climatic variation can be expected. The climate across the state varies from topical to sub-alpine. Summers tend to be hot with high temperatures usually around 90ºF (32ºC), while winter months typically see daily low temperatures right around freezing (32ºF or 0ºC). Rainfall is heavy in the state, averaging about 78 inches (198 cm) per year. Mountain regions tend to receive most of this precipitation, and rain seems to fall the most from May to October. To avoid the rain and the heat, most consider anytime between October and February as the ideal time to visit.

Location :

Located in northeast India, Manipur is founded north by Nagaland, east by Myanmar (Burma), south by Myanmar (Burma) and Mizoram, and west by Assam.

Culture :

Despite the fact that most Manipuris are Hindu, the Manipuri life contains many facets atypical of other Hindu cultures. Social classifications are not based on the common Hindu caste, but instead cultural groups: the Meiteis, the Bamons (Brahmins with Indian origin), the Pangans (Muslims with Indian origin), and the lois (social outcasts). Even today, people rarely marry members of another group. The Manipuri lifestyle also focuses on the small, closely knit neighborhood, or leikai. All activities and celebrations are done within the lekai, and the greatest honor is respect and approval of one's leikai. Manipur's most well known craft is exotic textile work. The mekhla, a sarong sheet women wear around their waists, and the Manipuri waistcoat are the most demanded masterpieces of this highly refined art. The art of Rasleela combines performance and a history lesson. Developed by Rajarsee Bhagyachandra, the dance recounts the mythological story of Manipur's creation. Such dancing and the exposition of other art forms provide for the state's fabulous festivals, which seem to be year long. Many fill the Manipuri calendar, and each one includes traditional music, dancing, and dining. Yaosang celebrates the full-moon day of February/March and the coming of spring. Cheirouba marks the beginning of a new year, and Ningol Chakaouba reflects on the love of siblings. All of these festivals involve, above all, general glee and merriment.

History :

A princely State for nearly two thousand year, Manipur came under the British rule only in 1891. On attainment of independence, it became a C State in 1949 and a full-fledged State of the Indian union in 1972.

Economy :

Manipur's main industries are pharmaceuticals, steel re-rolling, plywood production, bamboo chipping, cement, and electronics; however, the list is some what misleading. Industrial growth is increasingly more rapid, but currently it is far from developed in the state. Agriculture is the major way of life and means of survival for the state. Rice, bamboo, and various vegetables make up the bulk of agricultural production for the state.

States and Union Territories of India

Saturday, April 28, 2007

Maharashtra


Capital : Mumbai
Principal Languages : Marathi

Geography :

One of the largest states in India, Maharashtra enjoys over 450 miles (about 725 km) of beautiful western coastline along the Arabian Sea. The rest of the state is closed in by Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh on the north, Chhattisgarr on the east, and Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Goa on the south. The entire state can be viewed as three main geographical regions. Most of the state sits upon the Deccan Plateau. Moving westward, one comes across the thin strip of steep rolling hills known as the Ghats. Intersected by roads and capped by forts, the hills of the Ghats separate the Deccan Plateau from the final geographic region of the state: the Konkan Coastline.

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place :

Ajanta and Ellora (tourist centres), Ahmednagar, Akola, Alibag, Amravati, Aundhanagnath (religious place), Aurangabad, Bhandara, Beed, Buldana, Chandrapur, Dhule, Gadchiroli, Ganapatipule (religious place), Jalgaon, Jaina, Kanheri (tourist center) Karala caves, Kolhapur, Kudal, Latur, Lonavla (hill station), Matheran (hill station), Mumbai (earlier name Bombay, India's large commercial centre, Gateway of India, Chowpatty, Marine Drive, Malabar Hill,Prince of Wales Museum, Jubu Beach, Elephanta Caves dedicated to Lord Shiva), Nagpur, Nanded (religious place), Nasik (religious place), Osmanabad, Panchangani (hill station)., Pandharpur (religious place), Sangli, Satara, Sevargam (Mahatma Gandhi's ashram), Shirdi (pilgrimage place for followers of Shri Sai Baba), Sholapur, Tadobal National Park (wildlife Sanctuary), Thane, Trimbakeshwar (religious place), Tulajpur (religious place), Wardha, Yavatmal.

Climate :

The Maharashtra climate is tropical with slight temperature variations based on proximity to the coastline. January temperatures tend to be in the 60s to 70s range (15.6ºC - 26.1ºC), while May temperatures tend to be anywhere from 90ºF to 105ºF (32.2ºC - 40.6ºC). In general, the Konkan coast tends to enjoy a cooler climate than inland Maharashtra. The monsoon season, which lasts from July to September, brings about 80% of the state's annual rainfall, but again the regional experience varies. Some inland portions of the state remain relatively dry compared to others areas.

Location :

Located in central India, Maharashtra is bounded north by Madhya Pradesh, East by Chhattisgarh, South by Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Goa, west by the Arabian Sea and north-west by Daman and Gujarat.

Culture :

Maharashtra's culture reflects the heterogeneous make up of India. The majority of the population is made up of Hindus, but there are many other religious groups that call Maharashtra home: Muslims, Buddhists, Christians, Sikhs, Jains, and Parsees. Migrants from Persia, the Parsees are followers of Zoroastrianism and add depth to the culture of Maharashtra unseen in other Indian states. Mumbai in August witnesses the celebration of the Parsee New Year, Pateti, including its feasts and gatherings at the fire temple. Along side festivities of this nature, Maharashtra's people celebrate common Hindu and Muslim celebrations. Because of its large Catholic population, Mumbai has massive Christmas celebrations, involving tree decorating and lining the streets with colored lights. The state also observes distinctly Maharashtra holidays that symbolize state pride. Gudi Padva (usually in March or April) is the beginning of Maharashtra's traditional New Year and celebrates the overthrowing of former Gupta rulers by a simple potter's son; the Nariel Purnima (coconut day) observes the end of the monsoon season and finds most enthusiasm in the fishing communities. The Ellora Festifval and the Elephanta Festival both serve as talent shows for India's most gifted classical musicians

History :

Under the State Reorganisation Act, 1956, Bombay State was formed by merging the States of Kutch and Saurashtra and the Marathi-speaking areas of Hyderabad (commonly known as Marathwada) and Madhya Pradesh (also called Vidarbha) in the old State of Mumbai, after the transfer from that state of the Kannada-speaking areas of the Belgum, Bijapur, Kanara and Dharwar districts which were added to the state of Mysore (now Karnataka, and the Abu Road taluka of Banaskantha district, which to the State of Rajasthan. By the Bombay Reorganisation Act, 1960, which came into force from May 1, 1960,17 districts (predominantly Gujarati-speaking) in the north and west of Mumbai State became the new State of Gujarat and the remainder was renamed Maharashtra.

Economy :

Maharashtra is one of India's largest producers of oilseeds, peanuts, sunflowers, and soybean. It also produces large amounts of cotton, sugarcane, and turmeric, as well as special vegetables and fruits. Despite the large agricultural activity, the state is incredibly industrial, even considered the industrial powerhouse of the country. In fact, Mumbai is the commercial center of India. The state continues to push its industrial growth in many fields including, engineering, petrochemical, food processing, and various agro-industries. The state's largest industry, however, remains the cotton textile industry

States and Union Territories of India

Madhya Pradesh


Capital : Bhopal
Principal Languages : Hindi

Geography :

Just as its name implies, Madhya Pradesh is in the middle (madhya) of India. Surrounded by Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Maharashtra to the south, and Gujarat to the west, this middle state has no coast line and instead receives its water from major rivers: the Chambal, Sone, and Betwa. The state is made up of mostly plateau regions on the interior, but near the edges of the state there are valleys, hills, and even mountain ranges. In addition to all of this, the state as large tracts of forest land.

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place :

Bagh (fifth to seventh century AD caves), Balaghat, Betul, Bhind, Bhopal (lake-side State capital city), Burhanpur, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Damoh, Datia, Dewas, Dhar, Guna, Gwalior (beautiful forts), Hoshangabad, Indore (associated with Ahilya Bai), Jabalpur (famous For marble rocks), Jhabua, Katnim Khjuarho (once the capital of Chandella rulers, embodiment of the great artistic activity of the 9th to 12th century AD), Khandwa, Khargone, Mandla, Mandsaur, Mandu (deserted capital), Morena, Narsimhapur, Pachmarhi (hill resort),Panna, Raisen, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Sagar, Rewa, Sanchi (known for Great Stupa and ancient Buddhist Monuments), Satna, Sehore, Seoni, Shahdol, Shajapur, Shivpuri, Tikamgarh, Ujjain (oldest and holiest city of Parmar kings, also associated with Ashoka, Guptas and Vikramaditya), Vidisha

Climate :

Madhya Pradesh has three main seasons common to many Indian states: winter (November to February), summer (March to May), and monsoon (June to October). Winters bring cool to moderate temperatures between the 50s and 70s (10º C - 27º C), but the summer pushes the mercury up into the 85ºF to 95ºF (29ºC - 35ºC) range and sometimes near 120ºF (48.9º C). The monsoon season helps cool the state down into the 65ºF to 85ºF (18.3ºC - 29.4ºC) range and drops over 40 inches (about 102 cm) of rain each year.

Location :

Madhya Pradesh is bounded by Chhattisgarh in the east, Rajasthan and Gujarat in the west, Uttar Pradesh in the north and Maharashtra in the south.

Culture :

Most of India's tribal population calls Madhya Pradesh home. The Oraons dominate eastern portion of the state, the Gonds tribe (once rulers of the entire land now known as Madhya Pradesh) live in much of the state's southern portion, and the Bhils live in the western part of the state. Of course, non-tribal populations are found throughout the state, and the modern lifestyle continues to encroach on the land, but these tribes have remained true to their tribal heritage. The Bhils are known for their bows; the name Bhils actually comes from a Dravidian word for bow. The state as a whole has become well known for hand printing with vegetable dyes. This creative and artistic inspiration was traditionally channeled into garments, spreads, and other functional cloth pieces. The textile trade is as refined and mastered as the hand printing craft. Major centers, like Chanderi and Maheshwari, have become known for the fine silk and saris produced there. Though each tribal and non-tribal peoples have their own observances and festivals, the state is still predominantly Hindu. In turn, the holidays of the Hindu solar calendar are the main celebrations of the people. In similar fashion, the cooking of the state is much like that of the rest of northern India: a staple of wheat rotis and vegetables cooked with onions and tomatoes

History :

Under the provisions of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the State of Madhya Pradesh was formed on November 1, 1956. It consists of the 17 Hindi districts of the previous State of that name, the former state of Madhya Bart (except the Sunel enclave of Mandsaur district), the former State of Bhopal and Vindhya Pradesh and Sironj subdivision of Kota district, which was an enclave of Rajasthan in Madhya Pradesh.

Economy :

Madhya Pradesh is largely dependent on agriculture, but less than half of the land is suitable for cultivation. To make matters even more difficult, the distribution of usable land is not even. The state manages, however, and has proven itself to be strong producer of agricultural commodities. The eastern part of the state with its higher rainfall grows large amounts of rice, while the western portion of the state grows wheat. Madhya Pradesh also produces large amounts of sorghum, corn, peanuts, legumes, sesame, sugarcane, and cotton. Additionally, the state has rich (and relatively unused) coal reserves and iron-ore, manganese, bauxite, limestone, copper, and china clay deposits. The region of Panna also has a large supply of diamonds. On top of this possible wealth, the state has major industrial power in hydroelectric power, telecommunications, food processing, petrochemicals, and automobile production.

States and Union Territories of India

Friday, April 27, 2007

Kerala


Capital : Thiruvananthapuram
Principal Languages : Malayalam
Largest City : Thiruvananthapuram
Establishment : November 1, 1956

Districts :

Alappuzha | Ernakulam | Idukki | Kannur | Kasaragod | Kollam | Kottayam | Kozhikode | Malappuram | Palakkad | Pathanamthitta | Thiruvananthapuram | Thrissur | Wayanad

Major Cities :

Kochi | Kollam | Kozhikode | Thiruvananthapuram | Thrissur

Geography :

Nestled away in the southwest corner of the subcontinent, the small state of Kerala makes up only 1.2% of India's total area, but it is home to 3.4% of India's population. Closed in by Karnataka to the north and Tamil Nadu on the east, Kerala's outlet to the rest of the world comes from its western coast on the Arabian Sea. The coastal belts of the state are actually the state's main attraction. Moving eastward from the Malabar Coast, Kerala slowly rises up into the Western Ghats, mountains that extend deeper into India.

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place :

Alleppey (sandy beach), Alwaye, Calicut (also called Kozhikode, was capital of Zamorin Rajas; Vasco da Gama landed here in 1498 AD), Cannanore (was capital of Kolathiri Raja), Choruthuruthi (famous poet and scholar Vallathol set up "Kerala Kalamanalam" here for revival of kerala are Forms), Cranganore (was capital ofcheraman Perumal, king of Kerala), Ernakulam, Guruvayoor (famous for ancient shrine of Lord Krishna), Idukki (hydro-electric Project), Kaladi (birth Place of Adi Sankaracharya, great Indian philosopher of 8th century), Kalpetta, Kasaragod (fort Projecting on to the sea), Kochi (earlier name Cochin, known as the Queen of the Arabian Sea), Kodanad (tourist place for trapping and taming wild elephants), Kottayam (main commercial centre), Kovalam (sea-side resort), Kozhikode, Malampuzha (picturesque surroundings and river project ). Malappuram, Munnar (highest town of kerala), Neyyar Dam (famous for scenic beauty), Palakkad, painavu Pathanamthitta, Periyar (wild life sanctuary) located near Thekkadi), ponmudi (famous bill station), quilon, Thiruvananthapuram (earlier name Trivandrum, known for Padmanabaswami temple, Veli lagoon at the outskirts), Trichur.

Climate :

Without a doubt, the only way to describe the Kerala climate is tropical. During the summer season, which lasts from April to August, temperatures hover around 90 F (32.2 C). The monsoon rains arrive In June, but do little to cool down the temperature. So, from June until September Kerala experiences very wet and hot conditions. Winter's onset in October does not bring cold or even chilly weather, but the season does keep temperatures moderate all the way through January

Location :

Located in south India, Kerala is bounded north by Karnataka, cast and southeast by Tamil Nadu, south - west by the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea in the west.

Culture :

Though Hinduism is the main religion of the state, Kerala has quite large Muslim and Christian populations. Islamic culture provided a Persian influence on the state, and Christianity's long history in Kerala has also helped mold the culture. Therefore, it comes as now surprise that Keralites have traditionally been very tolerant of religious differences. Its location between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea left Kerala with long periods of little contact with other parts of the world; thus it has distinct forms of art and custom. Woodcarving has been long practiced and mastered art of Kerala. Life-size sculptures and even completely carved buildings are found throughout the state. The 300 year-old dance form known as Kathakali is exclusive to Kerala. It combines opera, ballet, masque, and pantomime to create one of the most elaborate and technically difficult dance forms. Out of 11th century Kerala, Kalaripayattu emerged. Many experts believe that this complex martial art was a precursor of better-known oriental martial arts. One cannot discuss Kerala culture without discussing the food and celebrations of its people. Large Muslim and Christian populations have lent to widespread consumption of meat, but the distinguishing feature of Kerala's cuisine is the large amounts of curry leaves, coconut, coconut milk, and coconut oil used in preparation. This type of cooking adds to the celebration of religious holidays like Christmas and the state holiday of Onam, which marks the end of the monsoon, the time of harvest, and the legend of the return of an ancient ruler: Maha Billi.

History :

The State of kerala, created under the states Reorganization Act, 1956, consists of the previous State of Travancore - Cochin, expert for four taluks of the Trivandrumdistrict and a part of the Shencottah taluk of Quilon district. It took over the Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South from Madras state.

Economy :

Nearly 50 percent of the population of kerala is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. About 13 percent of the total cropped area is under irrigation. Cashewnut, arecanut, cocount, cotton, tea, cocoa, ginger and cardamom are the main cash crops of kerala. Rice and tapioca are important food crops. Forests account for 24 percent of the area of the State. Ilmenite, rutile, monazite, zircon, sillimanite and clay, quartz sand and lime shell are the important minerals of the State. Coir, cashew, rubber, tea, ceramics, electrical and electronic appliances, telephone cables, transformers, bricks and tiles, drugs and chemicals, general engineering, plywood, splints veneers, beedi and cigar, soaps, oils and fertilizers are the important industries of kerala. The new industries include precision instruments, machine tools. Petroleum and petroleum products, fertilizers and allied products, paints, aluminum, communication cables, rubber, rayon, pulp, paper, scooter, glass and nonferrous metals. The principal export products are cashew nuts, tea. coffee, paper and other spices, lemongrass oil, seafood's, rosewood, coir and coir products. The important power projects are : Panniyar, Sholayar, Sabarigiri, Sengulam, Peringalkuth, Neriamangalam, Idukki, Pallivasal, Edamalayar and Kuttiadi. Seaport : Kochi is the major seaport. Airports : Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi and Kozhikode. Out of them, the first two are international airports

States and Union Territories of India

Karnataka


Capital : Bangalore
Principal Languages : Kannada

Geography:

As the eighth largest state in India, Karnataka sits on the western edge of the Deccan Plateau. With Goa and Maharashtra to its north, Andhra Pradesh to its east, and Tamil Nadu and Kerala to its south, Karnataka lies on the Arabian Sea and controls 6% of India's water resources, including the Krishna, Cauvery, Godavari, and Palar Rivers. The state is typically divided into four regions: the Northern Karnataka Plateau, the Central Karnataka, Plateau, the Southern Karnataka Plateau, and the Karnataka Coastal Region. Across the state as a whole, one can find mountain ranges, valleys, rolling hills, and flat lands.

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place :

Badami (later captial of Chalukyas, famous for rock-cut temples), Bandipur (Wildlife Sanctuary), Bangalore (Vidhana Soudha, Cubbon Park, Chamaraja Sagar, Lalbagh Botanical Gardens, Fort, Tipu Sultan's Place, Bull Temple, Nandi summer resort), Belgaum (Fort, Gokak Falls), Bellary, Belur (Chenna Kesava Temple), Bhadravati, Bidar, Bijapur (known for Gol Gumbaz, Ibrahim Roza, Asar Mahal, Upli Buruj, Anand Mahal, Mecca Masjid), Chikmagalur, chitradurga, Devangere, Dharward, Gulbarga, Halebid (Joyasaleswara and Kedareswar5a Temples), Hampi (ruins of Vijayanagar empire), Hassan, Hubli, Jog Falls (Gersoppa Falls), Karwar (Port and beach), Kolar Gold Fields, Madikeri, Mandya, Mangalore (Port and beach), Mysore (known as "garden city" is famous for Brindavan Gardens and Dussehra Festivities, Chamundi Hills, Maharaja's Place), Raichur, Ranganathittoo (bird sanctuary), Shimoga, Shravanbelagola (famous for Gomatesbwara statue and pilgrinmage centre for Jains), Somanathapura, Sringeri, Srirangapatnam (capital of Tipu), Tumkur, Tungabhadra Dam. Badami, Aihole and Pattadkal are known for rock-cut and structural temples. Gokarna, Udupi, Dharmasthala, Melkote, Gangapura and Saundatti are famous pilgrimage centres.

Climate :

Climates vary in Karnataka along similar lines as the geographic regions of the state, because the largest influence on weather comes from altitude. Coastal Karntaka, including the western portion of the Karnataka Hills, experiences a very hot and rainy climate. As a minimally elevated area, this tropical monsoon climate is common. Moving inland into southern Karnataka, which if full of hills and plateaus and some mountainous terrain, one sees hot, dry weather for the most part. The northern portion of the inland Karnataka sees hot weather and near-arid precipitation levels as a result of its distance from the Arabian Sea.

Location :

Located in south India, Karnataka is bounded north by Maharashtra, east by Andhra Pradesh, south by Tamil Nadu and Kerala, west by the Arabian Sea

Culture:

Most people of Karnataka are of Dravidian descent; remains of this ancestry lay in the common languages of the state, which are descendants of Dravidian languages. The crafts of the Karnataka cannot be named Dravidian, but they are distinctly Indian, in that they combine craftsmanship with an artist's touch. Thanks to abundant forest resources, woodcarving has been a long held tradition of the Kannadigas and a point of pride for their state. Despite recently declining in popularity for obvious reasons, ivory carving was once a widespread trade. Unhindered by exterior forces, sandalwood carvings still provide intriguing works of art that represent Karnataka. Many of the common celebrations and festivals of Karnataka are special to the state and unknown in other areas. The Paryaya Festival of the Krishna temple in Udupi signifies a change in control of the shrine to a different religious order. Exclusively in Bangalore, one can find celebrations of the Karaga Festival, honoring the goddess Shakti and involving an intricate and arduous ceremony centered on a pot. Cuisine of the state is even more distinct, in that it varies depending on which region of the state one might find himself in. A typical meal might include kosambari (a salad of lentils, spices, chilies, mustard, coconut, and cucumber) or chitranna (rice made with lime juice, green chili and turmeric). The best-known Karnataka sweet is the obbattu, a skillet fried thin chappti filled with jaggery, coconut, and sugar.

History :

Karnataka has a glorious heritage of over two thousand years. The great Vijaynagar Empire and the Bhamani Kingdoms flourished here in medieval age. In the modern history, the great Tipu Sultan of Mysore under the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, brought together the Kannada-speaking people distributed in five State of Mysore and coorg, the Bijapur, Kanara and Dharwar districts and the Belgaum district (except one taluk) in former Bombay, the major portions of the Gulbarga, Raichur and Bidar districts in former Hyderabad, Raichur and South Kanara district (apart from the Kasaragod taluk) and the Kollegal taluk of the Coimbatore district in Madras. Earlier known as Mysore, the State was renamed Karnataka in 1973

Economy :

Karnataka is Predominantly agricultural. About 65 percent of the working population is engaged in agriculture and allied activities which generate about 49 percent of the State's income. Out of the total land area of the State the net area sown forms 56 percent. about 22 percent of the total cultivated area is under irrigation. Rice, ragi, jowar, wheat, millets and pulses are the major food crops of Karnataka. Sugarcane, cotton, oilseeds, mulberry, Tobacco, coconut, arecant, coffee, cashew, cardamom, pepper, oranges and grapes are the main cash crops. Forests occupy 20 percent of the area of the State. The State is rich in mineral resources. High grade iron ore, copper, manganese, chromite and china clay are the important minerals available in the State. Karnataka is the only State where gold mining is carried on. The large industries manufacture machine tools, aircraft, electronic products, watches and telecommunication equipment. Other flourishing industries of Karnataka are textiles, sugar, soap, chemical and pharmaceutical goods, fertilizer, paper, cement. Glass, ceramics, porcelain and electrical goods. Important public sector undertaking are Bharat Heavy Electrical, Hindustan aeronautics Limited and Hindustan Machine Tools, etc. Kudremukh Iron Ore Project at Malleswaram in Chikamagalur District is a Major development the project of the State. Karnataka stands first in the production of raw silk accounting for about 85 percent of the raw silk produced in the country. Sandal soap and sandal oil of Karnataka are well known in world markets. Karnataka also stands first in the production of electronic equipments. In fact, Bangalore is known as the "Electronic City of India". Karnataka is the first State in the country to have generated electricity in Gokak Falls in 1887.The important power projects are : Kalinadi, Varahi, Gerusoppa (Sharavathi) and Shivasamudaram Hydro Electric Projects. A thermal power station is located at Raichur and another diesel unit at Yelahanka near Ban galore. An atomic power plant is also being installed at Kaiga near Karwar. important seaport : New Mangalore Important airports : Bangalore, Belgaum and Mangalore.

States and Union Territories of India

Jharkhand


Capital : Ranchi
Principal Languages : Hindi

Geography :

The young state of Jharkhand touches its former brother state of Bihar on the north, West Bengal on the east, Orissa on the south, and the fellow young state of Chhattisgarh on the west. These lines, however, are simple political divisions that do not necessarily divide the states and their peoples in all in respects. In fact, most of Jharkhand is on the Chotanagpur Plateau, which happens to also reach into the surrounding states of West Bengal, Orissa, and Chhattisgarh

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place :

Bokaro, Jamshedpur (steel city), Chaibasa, Deoghar, Dumka (centres of Pilgrimage), Betla (Palamu National Park), Hazaribagh (wildlife reserve), Giridih, Godda, Gumla (hill resort), Singhbhum, Daltonganj (Populous town).

Climate :

The overall climate of the state can be characterized as tropical. Summers are hot and winters are fairly cool. However, this is a very general categorization of over 75,000 sq. km of land, and regional variations do exist. For example, Ranchi, Netarhat, and Pransnath basically have temperate climate all year, including the otherwise brutal summer. Jharkhand experiences its monsoon season from July to September, during which 90% of the year's total rainfall occurs.

Location :

Jharkhand is bounded by west Bengal in the west, Bihar in north and Orissa in south.

Culture:

Though the state is young politically, its people, traditions, and culture have an old history, as with most states of India. In fact, rock paintings documenting early civilization in the area date back to over 5,000 years ago. The tribes of the state still maintain many ancient arts and crafts, including expert construction of plates out of the Sal leave and sticks. Dance also reflects the largely tribal influence on culture. Enjoyment of unhindered music and dance occurs in all Jharkhand festivals, including its most famous festival Sarhul (literally "Sal tree blossom"). Most villages even leave a central lot of land clear for such celebrations. Traditionally the tribes of Jharkhand were hunting societies, but tribes more often focus on agriculture now. Only a small portion of the state still participates in hunting activities. Typical food of the region reflects this change. Rice is included with any meal, usually with vegetables. Bread is also included in the evening meal. The extremely common Hanaria, a local rice brew, is also a signature of the state.

History :

Jharkhand which came into being on November 15, 2000 is the homeland of the trial's for which they had been dreaming for centuries. A tradition goes that Raja Jai Singh Deo of Orissa had declared himself the ruler of Jharkhand in the 13th century. It largely comprises of forest tracks of Chhotanagpur plateau and Santhal Pargana and has distinct cultural traditions. In post-Independence car, the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha led by Santhal leader Shibu Soren started a regular agitation which impelled the government to establish the Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council in 1995 and finally a full-fledged state on November 15,2000

Economy :

The State is abundantly rich in minerals-Copper, Coal, Iron, Manganese, Mica, Chromite, Bauxite, etc. Reserves of Gold and Silver have also been found in the State. It has country's two biggest steel plants at Bokaro in the public sector and Tata Iron and Steel Co. (TISCO) in Jamshedpur in the Private sector. Other important industries are Shriram Bearings, Usha Martin, Indo-Ashahi Glass, Indian Tube Company, etc. The State has the Potential of becoming one of the most Prosperous States of India if all its mineral resources are fully harnessed.

States and Union Territories of India

Jammu and Kashmir


Capital : Srinagar (Summer), Jammu (Winter)

Principal Languages : Kashmiri, Dogri, Gujri, Punjabi, Urdu, Dalti, Dadri, Pahari and Ladakhi

Geography :

In 1948, the ruler of a healthy portion of land near China agreed to make his territory part of the Indian federation, and so under article 370 of the Indian constitution Jammu and Kashmir became a state. With Afghanistan and China to the north, China to the east, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south, and Pakistan to the west, the state now makes up the most northern extreme of India. The land quickly rises from a fairly high elevation of 1,000 feet above sea level to over 28,000 feet above sea level. Jammu and Kashmir's sharp ascension occurs over four geographical zones: the Kandi (dry belt), the middle run of the Indus River, the Shivalak Ranges, and the High Mountain Zone.

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place :

Anantnag, Baramula, Chilas, Doda, Gilgit, Gilgit Wazarat, Gulmarg, Jammu, Kargil, Kathua, Kokarnag, Kupwara, Leh, Mirpur, Muzaffarabad, Pahalgam, Patnitop, Phulwara, Punch, Rajauri, Riasi, Sonamarg, Srinagar-Venice of the Orient (Achabal Gardens, Chashma Shahi Springs, Dal Lake, Manasbal Lake, Nishat Bagh, Shalimar Bagh, Hazrathal Mosque, Nagina Lake, Hari Parbat Fort, Sonmarg), Udhampur, Verinag, Yusmarg. Other places of historical importance are Vaishno Devi Temple, Martand Temple, Pandrenthan Temple, Martand Temple, Pandrenthan Temple, Martand Temple, Pandrenthan temple, avanti Puri, Pari Mahal and shankaracharya Hill. Amarnath, 45 km from Pahalgam, is known for the sacred cave and ice lingam symbol of Lord Shiva at a height of about 3,880 metres.

Climate :

Though somewhat small, Jammu and Kashmir experience a wide array of weather conditions as a result of its varying elevation. The Jammu plains experience a tropical climate while the area of Ladakh experiences sub-arctic conditions. In between, areas like Kashmir and the Jammu mountains enjoy a moderate climate. In similar fashion, rainfall varies across the land, with some areas receiving as little as 3.5 inches (about 9 cm) per year and others receiving as much as 44 inches (about 112 cm) a year.

Location :

Located in the extreme north, the State is bounded north by China, east by Tibet (China), South by Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and west by Pakistan.

Culture:

This state of many names is also a state of many peoples and traditions. The existence of a single "Jammu and Kashmir culture" does not exist, but the many cultures of the state blend into a distinctly Jammu and Kashmir harmony. Kashmir was a Sanskrit and Persian learning center that early Indo-Aryans developed, and the people of the land later embraced Islam. One can strongly feel the Persian influence on this region. The regions of Ladakh and Jammu, however, were centers of Tantrayan Buddhism, and Jammu is now predominantly Hindu. All these regions reflect the history of the peoples that have lived in them. Though arts and crafts have become trademarks of the state as a whole, the particular product varies from place to place. Kashmir is known for its specialty woven shawls, a craft developed over the past 300 years. The shawls are known for coming in two types, amli (made in a sort of patched quilt manner) and kani (made by weaving in designs on a loom), and for being available in many types of wool, including wool made from a rare Tibetan goat found in the Himalayan Mountains. The region is also known for a 600 year old tradition of hand-knotted rugs. Though typically made from a wool base, these masterpieces can also include silk. The rugs of Bokhara are among the finest in the world.

History :

Kashmir is known as paradise on earth and has a legendary history going back to the epic age. the fourth Buddhist council during the reign of Kanishka was held here. In modern history, it was annexed to the Sikh kingdom of Punjab in 1819. In 1820, Ranjit singh made over the territory of Jammu to Gulab singh. After the decisive battle of Sabraon in 1846, Kashmir was also made over to Gulab Singh under the Treaty of Amritsar5. British supremacy was recognised until the Indian Independence Act, 1947, when all States decided on accession to India or Pakistan. Kashmir asked for standstill agreements with both. Pakistan agreed but India desired further discussion with the government of Jammu and Kashmir State. In the meantime, the State became subject to armed attack from the territory of India on October 26, 1947 by signing the Instrument of Accession. Jammu & Kashmir is, thus, an integral part of the Indian union, notwithstanding that out of the area of 2,22,236 sq km, 78,114 sq km is under illegal occupation of Pakistan to China and 37,555 sq km is under illegal occupation of China.

Economy :

About 80 percent of the people of the State are dependent on agriculture. Paddy, maize and wheat are the main crops. Gram, Bajra, jowar and barley are the main crops. Horticulture has made considerable progress in recent years. The State produces fruits and their exports have shown a remarkable increase over the years. The State has a forest area of 21,000 sq km, comprising over 15 percent of the total geographical area, excluding vast barrenness of Ladakh. Kashmir handicrafts are famous for excellence and are good foreign exchange corners. There are a large number of cottage industries and small-scale industrial units engaged in carpet and shawl making, engraved carpentry and handicrafts.

States and Union Territories of India

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Folk Dances North : Bhangra | Dhumal | Rouf | Lama Dance | Pangi Dances | Losar Shona Chuksam | Raas | Gidda | Dhamyal | Duph | Lahoor | Dhurang | Mali Dance | Tera Tali |
Folk Dances East : Bihu | Naga Dance | Hazagiri | Bamboo Dance | Nongkrem | Thang-Ta | Karma | Ponung | Brita or Vrita | Hurka Baul | Kali Nach | Ganta Patua | Paik | Dalkhai |
Folk Dances West : Gendi | Bhagoriya | Jawar | Garba | Dandiya | Kala | Dindi | Mando |
Folk Dances South : Dollu Kunitha |Dandaria | Karagam | Kummi | Kuttiyattam | Padavani | Kolam | Lava | Nicobarese |

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