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Wednesday, April 25, 2007

Bihar


Capital : Patna
Principal Language : Hindi, Angika, Bhojpuri, Magahi, Maithili
Largest City : Patna
Establishment : 1912

Districts :

Banka | Bhagalpur | Begusarai | Darbhanga | Madhubani | Samastipur | Madhepura | Saharsa | Supaul | Arwal | Aurangabad | Gaya | Jehanabad | Nawada | Jamui | Khagaria | Munger | Bhojpur | Kaimur | Patna | Rohtas | Nalanda | Araria | Katihar | Kishanganj | Lakhisarai | Purnia | Sheikhpura | Gopalganj | Saran | Siwan | East Champaran | Muzaffarpur | Sheohar | Sitamarhi | Vaishali | West Champaran

Geography :

As a land-locked state, Bihar enjoys the opportunity of incubating the amalgamation of its many surrounding cultures and peoples. With Nepal to the north, West Bengal to the east, Jharkhand to the south, and Uttar Pradesh to the west, Bihar sits as a transition in climate, culture, and economy between all these places. The famous and sacred Ganga River slices across the countryside from west to east, but provides annual silt to the Bihar plain, which makes for more fertile land.

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place :

Araria, Arrah, Aurangabad, Begusarai, Bettiah, Bhagalpur, Bhimbandh (pot water springs), Biharsharif, Bodh Gaya (most sacred Pilgrim place for Buddhists; Mahabodhi Temple; at the foot of the Bodhi tree here, Gautama Buddha attained Mahaparinivana and became the Enlightened One), Chhapra, Darbhanga, Gaya (centre of Pilgrimage for Hindus, Vishnupad Temple built by Queen Ahilya Bai of Indore on the banks of Falgu river, Temple of Sun God), Gopalganj, Hazipur, Jahanabad, Katihar, Khagaria, Kishanganj, Madhepura, Madhubani, Maner (sacred Muslim shrines of Sufi saint Hazarat Makhdoom Shab), Mothihari, Munger,Muzaffarpur, Nalanda (ruins of the world's earliest Buddhist university, Hiuen Tasang Studied at the University here in the 7th century), Nawada, Parasnath (J ain pilgrimage centre), Nawada, Parasnath (Jain pilgrimage center), Patna (ancient city of Pataliputra and capital of Ashoke is the present capital of Bihar, City Museum, Gandhi maidan, Golghar, Kumrahar, Har Mandir [one of the holiest Sikh shrines; built by Ranjit Singh, it marks the place where Gobind Singh, the 10th and the last of the Sikh Gurus, was born in 1660]),Pawapuri (where Lord Mahavira, the great preceptor of the Jains; was the Mahavira, the great preceptor of the Jains; was the Mahavira, the great preceptor of the Jains; was the capital of King Bimbisara in ancient times), Raxaul, saharsa, Sahibgani, Samastipur, Siwan, Soneput (the largest annual cattle fair in India is held here), Topchanchi (scenic value), Vaishali (seat of the First Republic of the world in sixth century BC, birth place of Mahavira, one of the Jain thirthankars), Vikramshila (ruins of another Buddhist university).

Climate :

Like many northeast Indian states, Bihar's climate experiences strong influence from the Himalayan Mountains. In particular the mountains affect the distribution of monsoon rains in this tropical and subtropical land. The people of Bihar consider their yearly weather pattern as four seasons: cold weather season (December - February), hot weather season (March - May), southwest monsoon (June - September), and retreating southwest monsoon (October - November).

Location :

Located in north India, Bihar is bounded by Nepal in north, Jharkhand in south, West Bengal in cast and Uttar Pradesh in west.

Culture :

The greatest influence on Bihari culture would have to be religion. Like most other states in India, there is a wide array of religions that call Bihar home. Though Hinduism is the prevailing religion of the people of Bihar now, ancient Bihar (known as Magadh) was a major center of Buddhist civilization, and Jainism found its start in Bihar. During medieval times, Islam and Sikhism thrived; British colonizers brought Christianity to the people of Bihar. As a result, Bihar is full of temples, mosques, and churches, all of which are major centers for their community. Reflective of the Hindu majority, the largest celebrations in Bihar are for Hindu observances, such as Holi, Raksh Bandhan, Deepawali (or Diwali), and Janmashtami. Of course, the holidays of Bihar's many other religions are celebrated as well.

History :

The ancient history of Bihar goes back to the Vedic age. Known in ancient days as Magadha, Bihar was the home state of the Mauryan emperors. Under Ashoka the Great, Magadha and its capital Pataliputra had become famous all over the world. It also played a prominent role in the history of medieval age-both the Sultanate of Delhi and the Mughals. As the great Mughals declined, Bihar had passed into the hands of the Nawabs of Bengal. The British had wrested territory from the Nawabs of Bengal following the battle at Buxar (Bihar) in 1764. Under the British, Bihar was a part of Bengal Presidency. In 191, Bihar along with Orissa was separated from Presidency of Bengal. In 1936, Bihar and Orissa became separate Provinces.

Economy :

The main occupation of people is agriculture. Rice, wheat, maize, ragi and pulses are the principal food crops, while sugarcane, oilseeds, tobacco, potato and jute are the main cash crops of the State. In addition to agriculture, quite a large number of people are employed in industrial establishments. It has cotton spinning mills, sugar mills, jute mills and leather industries. Bihar is also famous for production of tusser which is also famous than one. lakh persons. Cottage industries comprise of handicrafts. Madhubani paintings are known the world over. The major power projects are : Patratu Thermal power Station, Barruni Thermal Power Station, Muzaffarput Thermal Power Station, Subarnarckha Hydel power Station, Kosi Hydel; Power Station. Patna and Gaya have airports.

States and Union Territories of India

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