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Monday, April 30, 2007

Tamil Nadu


Capital : Chennai
Principal Languages : Tamil
Largest City : Chennai
Establishment : 1967-07-18

Districts :

Chennai | Coimbatore | Cuddalore | Dharmapuri | Dindigul | Erode | Kanchipuram | Kanyakumari | Karur | Krishnagiri | Madurai | Nagapattinam | Namakkal | Perambalur | Pudukkottai | Ramanathapuram | Salem | Sivaganga | Thanjavur | The Nilgiris | Theni | Thoothukudi | Tiruchirapalli | Tirunelveli | Tiruvallur | Tiruvannamalai | Tiruvarur | Vellore | Viluppuram | Virudhunagar

Major Cities :

Alandur | Avadi | Ambattur | Chennai | Coimbatore | Cuddalore | Dindigul | Erode | Kancheepuram | Kumbakonam | Madurai | Nagercoil | Neyveli | Pallavaram | Pudukkottai | Rajapalayam | Salem | Tiruchirapalli | Tirunelveli | Nagercoil | Tambaram | Thoothukudi | Tiruppur | Tiruvannamalai | Thanjavur | Tiruvottiyur | Vellore

Geography :

India's eleventh largest state, Tamil Nadu, is located in extreme southern India. Bordered by Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh on the north, Tamil Nadu has a long eastern coastline along the Bay of Bengal that turns into a southern coastline on the Indian Ocean. With Kerala on its west, Tamil Nadu is made up of five geographic regions: the Kurinji (mountain region), the Mullai (forest region), the Palai (arid region), the Marudham (fertile plains), and the Neidhal (coastal region).

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place

Anamalai (wild Lift Sanctuary), Chennai (earlier name Madras, Fort Street George and St. Mary's Church, Gandhi Mandapam, Tapaleeswarar Temple, Marina Beach, Aquarium, Parthasarathy Temple, San Thome Cathedral, Fort Museum. Snake Park, Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, Guindy Wild Life Sanctuary, Vandalur Zoolgical Park), Chidambaram (abode of Nataraja (the "Dancing Shiva"), temples of Dravidian architecture), Chithannavasal (monument centre), Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Elagiri (hill station), Erode, Hogenakkal (hill station), Kalakad (Wild Life Sanctuary), Kancheepuram (the "Golden City" known for silk industry was successively capital of City" known for silk industry was successively capital of the Pallavas, the cholas and the kings of Vijayanagar, known for the seventh century temples), Kanyakumari (earlier known as Cape Comorin, sacred place of Hindus, impressive memorial of Swami. Vivekananda), Kazhugumalai (monument centre), Madurai (Meenakshi Temple, Tirumalai Nayak Temple, rock-cut temple at Tiruparankundram), Mahabalipuram (also known as Mamalapuram, Famous beach and solid rock monuments), Moovarkoil (monument centre), Nagoor (monument center), Mundanthuri (Wild Life Sanctuary), Mudumalai (wild Life Sanctuary), Nagapattinam, Nagercoil, Narthamalai (monument centre), Ootacamund [Udhagamandalam] (hill resort), Papanasam (hill station), Point Calimere (Bird Sanctuary), Pudukkotai), Singanallur sivagangai, Srirangam (monument centre), Suruli (water falls), Thanjavur (capital of Chola emperors during 10th to 14th centuries AD, Brihadeeswara Temple), (monument centre), Tiruvannamalai (monument centre), Vellore, Virudhunagar, Yercaud (hill station).

Climate :

April and May are the hottest months of this tropical state's year. In these months, the weather can soar all the way up to about 104ºF (40ºC). Even the coast sees warm summer temperatures, but receives a cooling sea breeze each night. Obviously, the winter does not bring Tamil Nadu a freeze. Temperatures rarely drop below about 70ºF (21.1ºC) anywhere besides high in the hills. Winter also brings monsoon rains from October to December.

Location :

Location is South India; Tamil Nadu is bounded north by Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, East by the Bay of Bengal, south by the Indian Ocean and west by Kerala.

Culture :

Within the state, an established caste system exists and is more strictly followed than in most other parts of India. Many people wear a white mark on their forehead as an indication of the caste to which they belong. Additionally, Gypsies have held a long lasting position in Tamil culture, and the Badaga, Kota, and Toda tribes inhabit the Niligri Hills. Besides, castes and Gypsies, Tamil culture conjures up thoughts of music and dance. The state is the birthplace of Carnatic music and Bharatnatyam. One of the most highly treasured Indian classical dance forms, Bharatnatyam was originally the dance of young women in the temples of Mahabalipuram. These temples themselves are also amazing art forms. Each one contains extensive stone carvings that are a cornerstone of Tamil art. The countryside is dotted with various sites known for their own particular craft, such as the paintings of Tanjore, the mats of Pattamadai, and woodcarvings of Chettiand. Tamil art has also found its way into Tamil celebrations. Dolls are often made in preparation of the Navratri celebrations, but the main festival of Tamil is Pongal. Celebrated in January, Pongal marks the harvest and brings feasts, music, and dance to the state. January is also the time of the Thaipusam festivial, in which individuals ritually bathe. Many more festivals fill up the Tamil calendar.

History :

The history of Tamil Nadu goes back to the age of the sangams when a great civilisation flourished reaching new heights in the fields, of art, literature and occultism. During the medieval ages, it proudly preserved the heritage of the nation unperturbed by the ravages of the Muslim inroads in Northern India. The first trading establishment made by the British in the Madras State was at Peddapali (now Nizampatnam) in 1611 and then at Mazulipatnam. In 1639, the English were permitted to make a settlement at the place which is now Madras and Fort St. George was founded. By 1801, the whole of the territory from the Northen Circars to Cape Comorin (with the exception of certain French and Danish settlements) had been brought under British rule. Under the provisions of the States Reorgainisation Act, 1965, the Malabar district (excluding the islands of Laccadive and Minicoy) and the Kasaragod taluk of south Kanara district were transferred to the new State of Kerala; the South Kanara district (excluding Kasaragod taluk of the Coimbatore district were transferred to the new State of Mysore; and the Kollegal taluk of the Coimbatore district were transferred to the new State of Mysore; and the Laccadive Amindivi and Minicoy Island were constituted as a separate Union Territory. Four taluks of the Thiruvananthapuram district and the shencottah taluk of Quilon district were transferred from Travancore- Cochin to the new Madras State. On April 1,1960, an area of 1,049 sq km (405 sq miles) from Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh was transferred to Madras in exchanger for 845 sq km (326 sq miles) from the Chingleput and Salem districts. In January 1969, the State was renamed Tamil Nadu.

Economy :

70% of Tamil Nadu's population leads an agrarian life, producing vital food crops like rice, corn, and legumes. Tamil farmers also produce major cash crops, including cotton, sugarcane, coffee, tea, rubber, and chilies. Given these crops and major limestone, magnetite, mica, and quartz deposits, industry in Tamil Nadu has centered around very specific goods: textiles, fertilizers, paper, steel, and automobile parts. Tamil Nadu is also a major producer of leather and leather goods.

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