Capital : Chandigarh
Principal Languages : Punjabi (Official)
The fertile Punjab has proven itself successful in a political hot zone. Having Jammu and Kashmir to its north, Himachal Pradesh to its northeast, Haryana to its south, Rajasthan to its southwest, and Pakistan to its west, the state is blessed with fertile soil. The Indus, Ravi, and Ghaggar Rivers and their tributaries flow towards the southeast across the state, replenishing the soil and creating a useful canal system. The rolling hills of northeastern Punjab sit at the foot of the Himalayan Mountains.
Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place
Amritsar (Golden Temple, Durgiana Temple, Jallianwala Bagh), Anandpur Rao), Bhakra Dam, Faridkot, Kapurthala, Ludhiana, Nangal Dam, Pathankot, Patiala, Ropar (famous for ruins of Harappan city), Sangrur, Taran (Gurudwara in commemoration of Guru Ramdas) Climate :
Three major seasons make up Punjab's calendar: winter, summer, and the monsoon season. Winters last from October to March, and temperatures drop to fairly frosty levels (around 40ºF or 4.4ºC). During the summer, which lasts from April to June, the temperatures rise to very hot levels and have been known to go as high as 110ºF (43.3ºC). The monsoon season sees a slight drop off in temperature into simply warm levels and an onslaught of rains. Regions closer to mountains receive about 37.8 inches (96 cm) of rain from July to September; the plains receive about 22.8 inches (58 cm).
Punjab is bound by Jammu and Kashmir in the north, Rajasthan and Haryana in the south, Himachal Pradesh in the east and Pakistan in the west.
One of Punjab's most treasured traditions is the art known as phullkari (flowering). The craft involves creating flowery designs and surfaces using the very basic tools of a needle and silk thread. Needless to say, it also requires a great deal of skill. Craftsmen are well known for creating artistic bedspreads and floor coverings. Punjabi craftsmanship has also been put into the creation of pidhis (special stools), colorful leather jootis (shoes or slippers), and dolls. Punjab's dominant Sikh population has even had an effect on the celebrations of Hindus, and Muslims in the state. The festival of Baisakhi signifies the start of the harvesting season, but it also commemorates the organization of the Sikh order of the Khalsa by the tenth Guru, Guru Gobind. In fact, throughout the year Sikhs celebrate Gurpurabs, which honor the Gurus of the religion. The two largest ones pay respect to Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism (celebrated between October and November), and Guru Govind Singh (celebrated between December-January). Dining habits in Punjab vary with the season of the year. Winter cuisine's signature dish is sarson-ka-saag (mustard leaves) with white butter. This dish typically comes with roti and yogurt. Punjab is also known for rajma (a kidney bean dish). Punjabi cuisine's distinguishing trait is its abundant, some might say excessive, use of malai (cream), paneer (cottage cheese), and curds.
Punjab is the sword-arm of India. The Vedic civilisation got its birth and the great vedas were composed ion the banks of its five rivers. During the medieval ages, it decided the fate of various ruling dynasties of the country. After the downfall of the Mughals and the Marathas, Ranjit Singh established in Punjab a strong state based on patriotism and secularism. The English captured Punjab in 1849. It was constituted as an autonomous province of India in 1937. On attainment of Independence, the province was partitioned between India and Pakistan into East Punjab and West Punjab respectively, under the Indian Independence Act, 1947, the boundaries being determined under the Radcliffe Award. The name of East Punjab was changed Punjab under the Constitution of India. On November 1,1956 the erstwhile State of Patiala and East Punjab to form the State of Punjab. On November 1, 1966, under the Punjab reorgaisation Act, 1966, the State was reconstituted as a Punjabi-speaking State Comprising the Districts of Gurdaspur (excluding Dalhousie), Amritsar, kapurthala, Jalandhar, Ferozepur, Bathinda, Patiala and Ludhiana, parts of Sangrur, Hosphiarpur and Ambala districts, and parts of Kharar tehsil. The remaining area comprising as area of 46,620 sq km (18,000sq miles) and an estimated (1967) population of 8.5 million was shared Himachal Pradesh. The existing capital of Chandigarh was made the joint capital of Punjab and Haryana.
Punjab is a largely agrarian economy, specializing in wheat and rice. Additionally, the state grows corn, legumes, cotton, and sugarcane. Buffalo, other cattle, sheep, goats, and poultry are the main types livestock raised. Industry exists largely in metals, textiles, yarn, sporting goods, hand tools, and bicycles, but electronics and pharmaceuticals are rapidly growing sectors.
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