Saturday, April 28, 2007

Madhya Pradesh

Capital : Bhopal
Principal Languages : Hindi

Geography :

Just as its name implies, Madhya Pradesh is in the middle (madhya) of India. Surrounded by Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Maharashtra to the south, and Gujarat to the west, this middle state has no coast line and instead receives its water from major rivers: the Chambal, Sone, and Betwa. The state is made up of mostly plateau regions on the interior, but near the edges of the state there are valleys, hills, and even mountain ranges. In addition to all of this, the state as large tracts of forest land.

Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place :

Bagh (fifth to seventh century AD caves), Balaghat, Betul, Bhind, Bhopal (lake-side State capital city), Burhanpur, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Damoh, Datia, Dewas, Dhar, Guna, Gwalior (beautiful forts), Hoshangabad, Indore (associated with Ahilya Bai), Jabalpur (famous For marble rocks), Jhabua, Katnim Khjuarho (once the capital of Chandella rulers, embodiment of the great artistic activity of the 9th to 12th century AD), Khandwa, Khargone, Mandla, Mandsaur, Mandu (deserted capital), Morena, Narsimhapur, Pachmarhi (hill resort),Panna, Raisen, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Sagar, Rewa, Sanchi (known for Great Stupa and ancient Buddhist Monuments), Satna, Sehore, Seoni, Shahdol, Shajapur, Shivpuri, Tikamgarh, Ujjain (oldest and holiest city of Parmar kings, also associated with Ashoka, Guptas and Vikramaditya), Vidisha

Climate :

Madhya Pradesh has three main seasons common to many Indian states: winter (November to February), summer (March to May), and monsoon (June to October). Winters bring cool to moderate temperatures between the 50s and 70s (10º C - 27º C), but the summer pushes the mercury up into the 85ºF to 95ºF (29ºC - 35ºC) range and sometimes near 120ºF (48.9º C). The monsoon season helps cool the state down into the 65ºF to 85ºF (18.3ºC - 29.4ºC) range and drops over 40 inches (about 102 cm) of rain each year.

Location :

Madhya Pradesh is bounded by Chhattisgarh in the east, Rajasthan and Gujarat in the west, Uttar Pradesh in the north and Maharashtra in the south.

Culture :

Most of India's tribal population calls Madhya Pradesh home. The Oraons dominate eastern portion of the state, the Gonds tribe (once rulers of the entire land now known as Madhya Pradesh) live in much of the state's southern portion, and the Bhils live in the western part of the state. Of course, non-tribal populations are found throughout the state, and the modern lifestyle continues to encroach on the land, but these tribes have remained true to their tribal heritage. The Bhils are known for their bows; the name Bhils actually comes from a Dravidian word for bow. The state as a whole has become well known for hand printing with vegetable dyes. This creative and artistic inspiration was traditionally channeled into garments, spreads, and other functional cloth pieces. The textile trade is as refined and mastered as the hand printing craft. Major centers, like Chanderi and Maheshwari, have become known for the fine silk and saris produced there. Though each tribal and non-tribal peoples have their own observances and festivals, the state is still predominantly Hindu. In turn, the holidays of the Hindu solar calendar are the main celebrations of the people. In similar fashion, the cooking of the state is much like that of the rest of northern India: a staple of wheat rotis and vegetables cooked with onions and tomatoes

History :

Under the provisions of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the State of Madhya Pradesh was formed on November 1, 1956. It consists of the 17 Hindi districts of the previous State of that name, the former state of Madhya Bart (except the Sunel enclave of Mandsaur district), the former State of Bhopal and Vindhya Pradesh and Sironj subdivision of Kota district, which was an enclave of Rajasthan in Madhya Pradesh.

Economy :

Madhya Pradesh is largely dependent on agriculture, but less than half of the land is suitable for cultivation. To make matters even more difficult, the distribution of usable land is not even. The state manages, however, and has proven itself to be strong producer of agricultural commodities. The eastern part of the state with its higher rainfall grows large amounts of rice, while the western portion of the state grows wheat. Madhya Pradesh also produces large amounts of sorghum, corn, peanuts, legumes, sesame, sugarcane, and cotton. Additionally, the state has rich (and relatively unused) coal reserves and iron-ore, manganese, bauxite, limestone, copper, and china clay deposits. The region of Panna also has a large supply of diamonds. On top of this possible wealth, the state has major industrial power in hydroelectric power, telecommunications, food processing, petrochemicals, and automobile production.

States and Union Territories of India

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