Capital : Srinagar (Summer), Jammu (Winter)
Principal Languages : Kashmiri, Dogri, Gujri, Punjabi, Urdu, Dalti, Dadri, Pahari and Ladakhi
In 1948, the ruler of a healthy portion of land near China agreed to make his territory part of the Indian federation, and so under article 370 of the Indian constitution Jammu and Kashmir became a state. With Afghanistan and China to the north, China to the east, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south, and Pakistan to the west, the state now makes up the most northern extreme of India. The land quickly rises from a fairly high elevation of 1,000 feet above sea level to over 28,000 feet above sea level. Jammu and Kashmir's sharp ascension occurs over four geographical zones: the Kandi (dry belt), the middle run of the Indus River, the Shivalak Ranges, and the High Mountain Zone.
Important Cities - Towns and Religious - Tourist Place :
Anantnag, Baramula, Chilas, Doda, Gilgit, Gilgit Wazarat, Gulmarg, Jammu, Kargil, Kathua, Kokarnag, Kupwara, Leh, Mirpur, Muzaffarabad, Pahalgam, Patnitop, Phulwara, Punch, Rajauri, Riasi, Sonamarg, Srinagar-Venice of the Orient (Achabal Gardens, Chashma Shahi Springs, Dal Lake, Manasbal Lake, Nishat Bagh, Shalimar Bagh, Hazrathal Mosque, Nagina Lake, Hari Parbat Fort, Sonmarg), Udhampur, Verinag, Yusmarg. Other places of historical importance are Vaishno Devi Temple, Martand Temple, Pandrenthan Temple, Martand Temple, Pandrenthan Temple, Martand Temple, Pandrenthan temple, avanti Puri, Pari Mahal and shankaracharya Hill. Amarnath, 45 km from Pahalgam, is known for the sacred cave and ice lingam symbol of Lord Shiva at a height of about 3,880 metres.
Though somewhat small, Jammu and Kashmir experience a wide array of weather conditions as a result of its varying elevation. The Jammu plains experience a tropical climate while the area of Ladakh experiences sub-arctic conditions. In between, areas like Kashmir and the Jammu mountains enjoy a moderate climate. In similar fashion, rainfall varies across the land, with some areas receiving as little as 3.5 inches (about 9 cm) per year and others receiving as much as 44 inches (about 112 cm) a year.
Located in the extreme north, the State is bounded north by China, east by Tibet (China), South by Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and west by Pakistan.
This state of many names is also a state of many peoples and traditions. The existence of a single "Jammu and Kashmir culture" does not exist, but the many cultures of the state blend into a distinctly Jammu and Kashmir harmony. Kashmir was a Sanskrit and Persian learning center that early Indo-Aryans developed, and the people of the land later embraced Islam. One can strongly feel the Persian influence on this region. The regions of Ladakh and Jammu, however, were centers of Tantrayan Buddhism, and Jammu is now predominantly Hindu. All these regions reflect the history of the peoples that have lived in them. Though arts and crafts have become trademarks of the state as a whole, the particular product varies from place to place. Kashmir is known for its specialty woven shawls, a craft developed over the past 300 years. The shawls are known for coming in two types, amli (made in a sort of patched quilt manner) and kani (made by weaving in designs on a loom), and for being available in many types of wool, including wool made from a rare Tibetan goat found in the Himalayan Mountains. The region is also known for a 600 year old tradition of hand-knotted rugs. Though typically made from a wool base, these masterpieces can also include silk. The rugs of Bokhara are among the finest in the world.
Kashmir is known as paradise on earth and has a legendary history going back to the epic age. the fourth Buddhist council during the reign of Kanishka was held here. In modern history, it was annexed to the Sikh kingdom of Punjab in 1819. In 1820, Ranjit singh made over the territory of Jammu to Gulab singh. After the decisive battle of Sabraon in 1846, Kashmir was also made over to Gulab Singh under the Treaty of Amritsar5. British supremacy was recognised until the Indian Independence Act, 1947, when all States decided on accession to India or Pakistan. Kashmir asked for standstill agreements with both. Pakistan agreed but India desired further discussion with the government of Jammu and Kashmir State. In the meantime, the State became subject to armed attack from the territory of India on October 26, 1947 by signing the Instrument of Accession. Jammu & Kashmir is, thus, an integral part of the Indian union, notwithstanding that out of the area of 2,22,236 sq km, 78,114 sq km is under illegal occupation of Pakistan to China and 37,555 sq km is under illegal occupation of China.
About 80 percent of the people of the State are dependent on agriculture. Paddy, maize and wheat are the main crops. Gram, Bajra, jowar and barley are the main crops. Horticulture has made considerable progress in recent years. The State produces fruits and their exports have shown a remarkable increase over the years. The State has a forest area of 21,000 sq km, comprising over 15 percent of the total geographical area, excluding vast barrenness of Ladakh. Kashmir handicrafts are famous for excellence and are good foreign exchange corners. There are a large number of cottage industries and small-scale industrial units engaged in carpet and shawl making, engraved carpentry and handicrafts.
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